Harden Benjamin E.

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Benjamin E.

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Now showing 1 - 5 of 5
  • Article
    Trends in physical properties at the southern New England shelf break
    (American Geophysical Union, 2020-01-21) Harden, Benjamin E. ; Gawarkiewicz, Glen G. ; Infante, Mia
    We analyze 11 years (2003–2013) of repeat temperature and salinity sections from across the New England shelf break south of Cape Cod during early summer (June–July). The mean sections resolved the shelf break front which supports the Shelf Break Jet, a vital component of the regional circulation. Individual sections showed a great deal of variability associated with meanders in the shelf break front consistent with previous studies in the region. Over the 11 year record, the shelf region (inshore of the 100 m isobath) warmed by 0.26 °C yr -1, with the majority of this warming occurring shallower than 20 m (0.58 °C yr -1). The full‐depth trend agrees well with previous studies of shelf warming to the north and the south of our study region. The temperature and salinity of the offshore edge of the Cold Pool Water on the shelf did not change significantly during this period. The surface warming on the shelf resulted in a decrease in near‐surface density of 0.12 kg m -3 yr -1 and an increase in stratification between 10 and 15 m of 6.7 X 10(-5) S -2 yr -1 . Offshore of the shelf break, the Slope Water also warmed and became more saline by 0.21 °C yr -1 and 0.04 yr -1 respectively, resulting in a maximal reduction in density of 0.01 kg m -3 yr -1. In the Shelf Break Front, there is some evidence of freshening and a reduction in density, which may have resulted from an offshore shift in the Cold Pool but the statistical significance is small.
  • Article
    The annual salinity cycle of the Denmark Strait Overflow
    (American Geophysical Union, 2022-03-22) Opher, Jacob G. ; Brearley, J. Alexander ; Dye, Stephen R. ; Pickart, Robert S. ; Renfrew, Ian A. ; Harden, Benjamin E. ; Meredith, Michael P.
    The Denmark Strait Overflow (DSO) is an important source of dense water input to the deep limb of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). It is fed by separate currents from the north that advect dense water masses formed in the Nordic Seas and Arctic Ocean which then converge at Denmark Strait. Here we identify an annual salinity cycle of the DSO, characterized by freshening in winter and spring. The freshening is linked to freshening of the Shelfbreak East Greenland Current in the Blosseville Basin north of the Denmark Strait. We demonstrate that the East Greenland Current advects fresh pycnocline water above the recirculating Atlantic Water, which forms a low salinity lid for the overflow in Denmark Strait and in the Irminger Basin. This concept is supported by intensified freshening of the DSO in lighter density classes on the Greenland side of the overflow. The salinity of the DSO in the Irminger Basin is significantly correlated with northerly/northeasterly winds in the Blosseville Basin at a lag of 3–4 months, consistent with estimated transit times. This suggests that wind driven variability of DSO source water exerts an important influence on the salinity variability of the downstream DSO, and hence the composition of the deep limb of the AMOC.
  • Presentation
    Data Management in (Ocean) Sciences – Interactive Class
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 2020-02-26) Soenen, Karen ; Harden, Benjamin E.
    Ocean 101, engaging classes to help SEA students understand the frontiers of ocean climate science. This particular class focuses on data management in oceanography. Covered topics are the importance of open data, the data life cycle and F.A.I.R. Principles. The interactive part consists of creating the content for a data management plan and applying general data management practices.
  • Article
    Export of ice sheet meltwater from Upernavik Fjord, West Greenland
    (American Meteorological Society, 2022-03-01) Muilwijk, Morven ; Straneo, Fiamma ; Slater, Donald A. ; Smedsrud, Lars H. ; Holte, James W. ; Wood, Michael ; Andresen, Camilla S. ; Harden, Benjamin E.
    Meltwater from Greenland is an important freshwater source for the North Atlantic Ocean, released into the ocean at the head of fjords in the form of runoff, submarine melt, and icebergs. The meltwater release gives rise to complex in-fjord transformations that result in its dilution through mixing with other water masses. The transformed waters, which contain the meltwater, are exported from the fjords as a new water mass Glacially Modified Water (GMW). Here we use summer hydrographic data collected from 2013 to 2019 in Upernavik, a major glacial fjord in northwest Greenland, to describe the water masses that flow into the fjord from the shelf and the exported GMWs. Using an optimum multi-parameter technique across multiple years we then show that GMW is composed of 57.8% ± 8.1% Atlantic Water (AW), 41.0% ± 8.3% Polar Water (PW), 1.0% ± 0.1% subglacial discharge, and 0.2% ± 0.2% submarine meltwater. We show that the GMW fractional composition cannot be described by buoyant plume theory alone since it includes lateral mixing within the upper layers of the fjord not accounted for by buoyant plume dynamics. Consistent with its composition, we find that changes in GMW properties reflect changes in the AW and PW source waters. Using the obtained dilution ratios, this study suggests that the exchange across the fjord mouth during summer is on the order of 50 mSv (1 Sv ≡ 106 m3 s−1) (compared to a freshwater input of 0.5 mSv). This study provides a first-order parameterization for the exchange at the mouth of glacial fjords for large-scale ocean models.
  • Dataset
    CTD data from the WHOI-MIT Joint Program Orientation Cruises aboard the SSV Corwith Cramer (2003-2013)
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 2020-01-14) Gawarkiewicz, Glen G. ; Harden, Benjamin E.
    CTD data from 11 WHOI-MIT Joint Program Orientation Cruises aboard the SSV Corwith Cramer. Cruises occupied standard sections to the south of Cape Cod across the New England Shelfbreak in late June between 2003 and 2013.