Shanks Alan L.

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Shanks
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Alan L.
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Does fish larval dispersal differ between high and low latitudes?

2013-02 , Leis, Jeffrey M. , Caselle, Jennifer E. , Bradbury, Ian R. , Kristiansen, Trond , Llopiz, Joel K. , Miller, Michael J. , O'Connor, Mary I. , Paris, Claire B. , Shanks, Alan L. , Sogard, Susan M. , Swearer, Stephen E. , Treml, Eric A. , Vetter, Russell D. , Warner, Robert R.

Several factors lead to expectations that the scale of larval dispersal and population connectivity of marine animals differs with latitude. We examine this expectation for demersal shorefishes, including relevant mechanisms, assumptions, and evidence. We explore latitudinal differences in: 1) biological (e.g., species composition, spawning mode, pelagic larval duration (PLD)), 2) physical (e.g., water movement, habitat fragmentation), and 3) biophysical factors (primarily temperature, which could strongly affect development, swimming ability, or feeding). Latitudinal differences exist in taxonomic composition, habitat fragmentation, temperature, and larval swimming, and each could influence larval dispersal. Nevertheless, clear evidence for latitudinal differences in larval dispersal at the level of broad faunas is lacking. For example, PLD is strongly influenced by taxon, habitat, and geographic region, but no independent latitudinal trend is present in published PLD values. Any trends in larval dispersal may be obscured by a lack of appropriate information, or use of ‘off the shelf’ information that is biased with regard to the species assemblages in areas of concern. Biases may also be introduced from latitudinal differences in taxa or spawning modes, as well as limited latitudinal sampling. We suggest research to make progress on the question of latitudinal trends in larval dispersal.