Van Bonn William
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ArticleStranded beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) calf response and care: reports of two cases with different outcomes(Norwegian Polar Institute, 2021-11-26) Goertz, Caroline ; Woodie, Kathy ; Long, Brett ; Hartman, Lisa ; Gaglione, Eric ; Christen, Dennis ; Clauss, Tonya ; Flower, Jennifer ; Tuttle, Allison ; Richard, Carey ; Romano, Tracy ; Schmitt, Todd ; Otjen, Eric ; Osborn, Steve ; Aibel, Steve ; Binder, Tim ; Van Bonn, William ; Castellote, Manuel ; Mooney, T. Aran ; Dennison-Gibby, Sophie ; Burek-Huntington, Kathy ; Rowles, Teresa K.Given the remote, rugged areas belugas typically inhabit and the low rehabilitation success rate with any cetacean, it is rare to have the opportunity to rescue a live-stranded beluga. The Alaska SeaLife Center cared for two stranded beluga calves with two different outcomes. In 2012, a neonatal male beluga calf (DL1202) stranded following intense storms in Bristol Bay. In 2017, a helicopter pilot discovered a stranded male beluga calf (DL1705) during a flight over Cook Inlet. The Alaska SeaLife Center transported both calves for rehabilitation and utilized supportive care plans based on those for other species of stranded cetaceans and care of neonatal belugas at zoological facilities. Diagnostics included complete blood counts, serum chemistries, microbial cultures, hearing tests, imaging and morphometric measurements to monitor systemic health. Treatments included in-pool flotation support; antimicrobials; gastrointestinal support; and close monitoring of respirations, urination, defecation and behaviour. After three weeks of supportive care, the Bristol Bay calf (DL1202) succumbed to sepsis secondary to a possible prematurity-related lack of passive transfer of antibodies. After seven weeks, the Cook Inlet calf (DL1705) recovered and all medications were discontinued. Unable to survive on his own, he was declared non-releasable and placed in long-term care at a zoological facility, to live with other belugas. Aspects and details from successful cases of cetacean critical care become important references especially vital for the survival of essential animals in small, endangered populations.
PreprintAquarium microbiome response to ninety-percent system water change : clues to microbiome management( 2015-04) Van Bonn, William ; LaPointe, Allen ; Gibbons, Sean M. ; Frazier, Angel ; Hampton-Marcell, Jarrad T. ; Gilbert, Jack A.The bacterial community composition and structure of water from an established teleost fish system was examined before, during and after a major water change to explore the impact of such a water-change disturbance on the stability of the aquarium water microbiome. The diversity and evenness of the bacterial community significantly increased following the 90% water replacement. While the change in bacterial community structure was significant, it was slight, and was also weakly correlated with changes in physicochemical parameters. Interestingly there was a significant shift in the correlative network relationships between operational taxonomic units from before to after the water replacement. We suggest this shift in network structure is due to the turnover of many taxa during the course of water replacement. These observations will inform future studies into manipulation of the microbiome by changing system environmental parameter values to optimize resident animal health.
ArticleDeadly diving? Physiological and behavioural management of decompression stress in diving mammals(Royal Society, 2011-12-21) Hooker, Sascha K. ; Fahlman, Andreas ; Moore, Michael J. ; Aguilar De Soto, Natacha ; Bernaldo de Quiros, Yara ; Brubakk, A. O. ; Costa, Daniel P. ; Costidis, Alexander M. ; Dennison, Sophie ; Falke, K. J. ; Fernandez, Antonio ; Ferrigno, Massimo ; Fitz-Clarke, J. R. ; Garner, Michael M. ; Houser, Dorian S. ; Jepson, Paul D. ; Ketten, Darlene R. ; Kvadsheim, P. H. ; Madsen, Peter T. ; Pollock, N. W. ; Rotstein, David S. ; Rowles, Teresa K. ; Simmons, S. E. ; Van Bonn, William ; Weathersby, P. K. ; Weise, Michael ; Williams, Terrie M. ; Tyack, Peter L.Decompression sickness (DCS; ‘the bends’) is a disease associated with gas uptake at pressure. The basic pathology and cause are relatively well known to human divers. Breath-hold diving marine mammals were thought to be relatively immune to DCS owing to multiple anatomical, physiological and behavioural adaptations that reduce nitrogen gas (N2) loading during dives. However, recent observations have shown that gas bubbles may form and tissue injury may occur in marine mammals under certain circumstances. Gas kinetic models based on measured time-depth profiles further suggest the potential occurrence of high blood and tissue N2 tensions. We review evidence for gas-bubble incidence in marine mammal tissues and discuss the theory behind gas loading and bubble formation. We suggest that diving mammals vary their physiological responses according to multiple stressors, and that the perspective on marine mammal diving physiology should change from simply minimizing N2 loading to management of the N2 load. This suggests several avenues for further study, ranging from the effects of gas bubbles at molecular, cellular and organ function levels, to comparative studies relating the presence/absence of gas bubbles to diving behaviour. Technological advances in imaging and remote instrumentation are likely to advance this field in coming years.