Brand Larry E.

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Larry E.

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  • Preprint
    Ocean urea fertilization for carbon credits poses high ecological risks
    ( 2008) Glibert, Patricia M. ; Azanza, Rhodora ; Burford, Michele ; Furuya, Ken ; Abal, Eva ; Al-Azri, Adnan ; Al-Yamani, Faiza ; Andersen, Per ; Anderson, Donald M. ; Beardall, John ; Berg, Gry M. ; Brand, Larry E. ; Bronk, Deborah ; Brookes, Justin ; Burkholder, JoAnn M. ; Cembella, Allan D. ; Cochlan, William P. ; Collier, Jackie L. ; Collos, Yves ; Diaz, Robert ; Doblin, Martina ; Drennen, Thomas ; Dyhrman, Sonya T. ; Fukuyo, Yasuwo ; Furnas, Miles ; Galloway, James ; Graneli, Edna ; Ha, Dao Viet ; Hallegraeff, Gustaaf M. ; Harrison, John A. ; Harrison, Paul J. ; Heil, Cynthia A. ; Heimann, Kirsten ; Howarth, Robert W. ; Jauzein, Cecile ; Kana, Austin A. ; Kana, Todd M. ; Kim, Hakgyoon ; Kudela, Raphael M. ; Legrand, Catherine ; Mallin, Michael ; Mulholland, Margaret R. ; Murray, Shauna A. ; O’Neil, Judith ; Pitcher, Grant C. ; Qi, Yuzao ; Rabalais, Nancy ; Raine, Robin ; Seitzinger, Sybil P. ; Salomon, Paulo S. ; Solomon, Caroline ; Stoecker, Diane K. ; Usup, Gires ; Wilson, Joanne ; Yin, Kedong ; Zhou, Mingjiang ; Zhu, Mingyuan
    The proposed plan for enrichment of the Sulu Sea, Philippines, a region of rich marine biodiversity, with thousands of tonnes of urea in order to stimulate algal blooms and sequester carbon is flawed for multiple reasons. Urea is preferentially used as a nitrogen source by some cyanobacteria and dinoflagellates, many of which are neutrally or positively buoyant. Biological pumps to the deep sea are classically leaky, and the inefficient burial of new biomass makes the estimation of a net loss of carbon from the atmosphere questionable at best. The potential for growth of toxic dinoflagellates is also high, as many grow well on urea and some even increase their toxicity when grown on urea. Many toxic dinoflagellates form cysts which can settle to the sediment and germinate in subsequent years, forming new blooms even without further fertilization. If large-scale blooms do occur, it is likely that they will contribute to hypoxia in the bottom waters upon decomposition. Lastly, urea production requires fossil fuel usage, further limiting the potential for net carbon sequestration. The environmental and economic impacts are potentially great and need to be rigorously assessed.
  • Article
    Centers for Oceans and Human Health : a unified approach to the challenge of harmful algal blooms
    (BioMed Central, 2008-11-07) Erdner, Deana L. ; Dyble, Julianne ; Parsons, Michael L. ; Stevens, Richard C. ; Hubbard, Katherine A. ; Wrabel, Michele L. ; Moore, Stephanie K. ; Lefebvre, Kathi A. ; Anderson, Donald M. ; Bienfang, Paul ; Bidigare, Robert R. ; Parker, Micaela S. ; Moeller, Peter D. R. ; Brand, Larry E. ; Trainer, Vera L.
    Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are one focus of the national research initiatives on Oceans and Human Health (OHH) at NIEHS, NOAA and NSF. All of the OHH Centers, from the east coast to Hawaii, include one or more research projects devoted to studying HAB problems and their relationship to human health. The research shares common goals for understanding, monitoring and predicting HAB events to protect and improve human health: understanding the basic biology of the organisms; identifying how chemistry, hydrography and genetic diversity influence blooms; developing analytical methods and sensors for cells and toxins; understanding health effects of toxin exposure; and developing conceptual, empirical and numerical models of bloom dynamics. In the past several years, there has been significant progress toward all of the common goals. Several studies have elucidated the effects of environmental conditions and genetic heterogeneity on bloom dynamics. New methods have been developed or implemented for the detection of HAB cells and toxins, including genetic assays for Pseudo-nitzschia and Microcystis, and a biosensor for domoic acid. There have been advances in predictive models of blooms, most notably for the toxic dinoflagellates Alexandrium and Karenia. Other work is focused on the future, studying the ways in which climate change may affect HAB incidence, and assessing the threat from emerging HABs and toxins, such as the cyanobacterial neurotoxin β-N-methylamino-L-alanine. Along the way, many challenges have been encountered that are common to the OHH Centers and also echo those of the wider HAB community. Long-term field data and basic biological information are needed to develop accurate models. Sensor development is hindered by the lack of simple and rapid assays for algal cells and especially toxins. It is also critical to adequately understand the human health effects of HAB toxins. Currently, we understand best the effects of acute toxicity, but almost nothing is known about the effects of chronic, subacute toxin exposure. The OHH initiatives have brought scientists together to work collectively on HAB issues, within and across regions. The successes that have been achieved highlight the value of collaboration and cooperation across disciplines, if we are to continue to advance our understanding of HABs and their relationship to human health.
  • Preprint
    Impacts of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita on the microbial landscape of the New Orleans area
    ( 2007-03-20) Sinigalliano, Christopher D. ; Gidley, M. L. ; Shibata, T. ; Whitman, D. ; Dixon, T. H. ; Laws, Edward A. ; Hou, A. ; Bachoon, D. ; Brand, Larry E. ; Amaral-Zettler, Linda A. ; Gast, Rebecca J. ; Steward, Grieg F. ; Nigro, Olivia D. ; Fujioka, Roger S. ; Betancourt, W. Q. ; Vithanage, G. ; Mathews, J. ; Fleming, Lora E. ; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M.
    Floodwaters in New Orleans from Hurricanes Katrina and Rita were observed to contain high levels of fecal indicator bacteria and microbial pathogens, generating concern about long-term impacts of these floodwaters on the sediment and water quality of the New Orleans area and Lake Pontchartrain. We show here that fecal indicator microbe concentrations in offshore waters from Lake Pontchartrain returned to prehurricane concentrations within 2 months of the flooding induced by these hurricanes. Vibrio and Legionella species within the lake were more abundant in samples collected shortly after the floodwaters had receded compared with samples taken within the subsequent 3 months; no evidence of a long-term hurricane-induced algal bloom was observed. Giardia and Cryptosporidium were detected in canal waters. Elevated levels of fecal indicator bacteria observed in sediment could not be solely attributed to impacts from floodwaters, as both flooded and nonflooded areas exhibited elevated levels of fecal indicator bacteria. Evidence from measurements of Bifidobacterium and bacterial diversity analysis suggest that the fecal indicator bacteria observed in the sediment were from human fecal sources. Epidemiologic studies are highly recommended to evaluate the human health effects of the sediments deposited by the floodwaters.
  • Thesis
    Genetic variability and differentiation in niche components of marine phytoplankton species
    (Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 1980-01) Brand, Larry E.
    The acclimated asexual reproduction rates of many clones of Emiliania huxleyi (82), Gephrocapsa oceanica (19), Cyclococcolithina leptopora (31), Prorocentrum micans (28), Dissodinium lunula (22), Thoracosphaera heimi (20), and Gonyaulax tamarensis (83) were measured in several light and temperature regimes. The data were used to determine the amount of genetic variability and the spatial patterns of genetic differentiation in these species. None of the species examined exist purely as clones in nature. Statistically significant genetic variability is found even among clones isolated from single water bottles. The amount of genetic variability in asexual reproduction rates in individual phytoplankton populations ranged from 3 t o 13% (coefficients of variation). There is no obvious relationship between the amounts of genetic variability in the populations and the variability or predictability of the environments from which they were collected. No genetic differentiation was found within the Sargasso Sea in any of the oceanic species, but strong genetic differentiation was found between oceanic and neritic populations of the two species (E. huxleyi and G. oceanica) found on both sides of the Gulf Stream. The spatial patterns of genetic differentiation appear to be different in these two species, however. Genetic differentiation was found between populations from the Sargasso Sea and the slope water off New England is G. oceanica. In E. huxleyi the Sargasso Sea and slope water were similar, but different from the Gulf of Maine populations. Of the three species for which populations were collected at different times of the year (E. huxleyi, C. leptopora, and T. heimi), there is evidence of significant seasonal genetic changes in only one (C. leptopora).