Berg Peter

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Berg
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Peter
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  • Article
    Sub-tropical seagrass ecosystem metabolism measured by eddy covariance
    (Inter-Research, 2015-06-08) Long, Matthew H. ; Berg, Peter ; McGlathery, Karen J. ; Zieman, Joseph C.
    The metabolism of seagrass ecosystems was examined at 4 sites in south Florida, USA, using the eddy covariance technique under in situ conditions. Three sites were located across a phosphorus-driven productivity gradient to examine the combined effects of dynamic variables (irradiance, flow velocity) and state variables (sediment phosphorus and organic content, seagrass biomass) on ecosystem metabolism and trophic status. Gross primary production and respiration rates varied significantly across Florida Bay in the summer of 2012 with the lowest rates (64 and –53 mmol O2 m–2 d–1, respectively) in low-phosphorus sediments in the northeast and the highest (287 and –212 mmol O2 m–2 d–1, respectively) in the southwest where sediment phosphorus, organic matter, and seagrass biomass are higher. Seagrass ecosystems offshore of the Florida Keys had similar large daily production and respiration rates (397 and –17 mmol O2 m–2 d–1, respectively) and were influenced by flow through the permeable offshore sediments. Across all sites, net ecosystem metabolism rates indicated that the seagrass ecosystems were autotrophic in the summertime. Substantial day-to-day variability in metabolic rates was found due to variations in irradiance and flow velocity. At all sites the relationship between photosynthesis and irradiance was linear and did not show any sign of saturation over the entire irradiance range (up to 1400 µmol photons m–2 s–1). This was likely due to the efficient use of light by the large photosynthetic surface area of the seagrass canopy, an effect which can only be examined by in situ measurements that integrate across all autotrophs in the seagrass ecosystem.
  • Article
    Seagrass metabolism across a productivity gradient using the eddy covariance, Eulerian control volume, and biomass addition techniques
    (John Wiley & Sons, 2015-05-22) Long, Matthew H. ; Berg, Peter ; Falter, James L.
    The net ecosystem metabolism of the seagrass Thalassia testudinum was studied across a nutrient and productivity gradient in Florida Bay, Florida, using the Eulerian control volume, eddy covariance, and biomass addition techniques. In situ oxygen fluxes were determined by a triangular Eulerian control volume with sides 250 m long and by eddy covariance instrumentation at its center. The biomass addition technique evaluated the aboveground seagrass productivity through the net biomass added. The spatial and temporal resolutions, accuracies, and applicability of each method were compared. The eddy covariance technique better resolved the short-term flux rates and the productivity gradient across the bay, which was consistent with the long-term measurements from the biomass addition technique. The net primary production rates from the biomass addition technique, which were expected to show greater autotrophy due to the exclusion of sediment metabolism and belowground production, were 71, 53, and 30 mmol carbon m−2 d−1 at 3 sites across the bay. The net ecosystem metabolism was 35, 25, and 11 mmol oxygen m−2 d−1 from the eddy covariance technique and 10, −103, and 14 mmol oxygen m−2 d−1 from the Eulerian control volume across the same sites, respectively. The low-flow conditions in the shallow bays allowed for periodic stratification and long residence times within the Eulerian control volume that likely reduced its precision. Overall, the eddy covariance technique had the highest temporal resolution while producing accurate long-term flux rates that surpassed the capabilities of the biomass addition and Eulerian control volume techniques in these shallow coastal bays.