Shimizu Nobumichi

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  • Article
    Insights on coccolith chemistry from a new ion probe method for analysis of individually picked coccoliths
    (American Geophysical Union, 2007-06-30) Stoll, Heather M. ; Shimizu, Nobumichi ; Arevalos, Alicia ; Matell, Nora ; Banasiak, Adam ; Zeren, Seth
    The elemental chemistry of calcareous nannofossils may provide valuable information on past ocean conditions and coccolithophorid physiology, but artifacts from noncoccolith particles and from changing nannofossil assemblages may bias geochemical records from coccolith size fractions. We describe the first method for picking individual coccoliths using a tungsten needle in micromanipulator. Epoxy-mounted individuals and populations of coccoliths can be analyzed by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). For Paleocene sediments the technique distinguishes the high Sr/Ca ratios of coccoliths (0.3 to 2.8 mmol/mol) from low ratios in abiogenic calcite blades (0.1 mmol/mol). The large heterogeneity of Sr/Ca ratios among different genera suggests that primary geochemical differences have not been homogenized by diagenetic overgrowth and the thick massive coccoliths of the late Paleocene are a primary feature of biomineralization. Sr/Ca ratios for modern genera are on average higher than those of Paleogene genera but exhibit a comparable level of variability.
  • Preprint
    Sulfur isotope fractionation between fluid and andesitic melt : an experimental study
    ( 2014-07) Fiege, Adrian ; Holtz, Francois ; Shimizu, Nobumichi ; Mandeville, Charles W. ; Behrens, Harald ; Knipping, Jaayke L.
    Glasses produced from decompression experiments conducted by Fiege et al. (2014a) were used to investigate the fractionation of sulfur isotopes between fluid and andesitic melt upon magma degassing. Starting materials were synthetic glasses with a composition close to a Krakatau dacitic andesite. The glasses contained 4.55 to 7.95 wt% H2O, ~140 to 2700 ppm sulfur (S), and 0 to 1000 ppm chlorine (Cl). The experiments were carried out in internally heated pressure vessels (IHPV) at 1030°C and oxygen fugacities (fO2) ranging from QFM+0.8 log units up to QFM+4.2 log units (QFM: quartz-fayalite-magnetite buffer). The decompression experiments were conducted by releasing pressure (P) continuously from ~400 MPa to final P of 150, 100, 70 and 30 MPa. The decompression rate (r) ranged from 0.01 to 0.17 MPa/s. The samples were annealed for 0 to 72 h (annealing time, tA) at the final P and quenched rapidly from 1030°C to room temperature (T). The decompression led to the formation of a S-bearing aqueous fluid phase due to the relatively large fluid-melt partitioning coefficients of S. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) was used to determine the isotopic composition of the glasses before and after decompression. Mass balance calculations were applied to estimate the gas-melt S isotope fractionation factor αg-m. No detectable effect of r and tA on αg-m was observed. However, SIMS data revealed a remarkable increase of αg-m from ~0.9985 ± 0.0007 at >QFM+3 to ~1.0042 ± 0.0042 at ~QFM+1. Noteworthy, the isotopic fractionation at reducing conditions was about an order of magnitude larger than predicted by previous works. Based on our experimental results and on previous findings for S speciation in fluid and silicate melt a new model predicting the effect of fO2 on αg-m (or Δ34S g-m) in andesitic systems at 1030°C is proposed. Our experimental results as well as our modeling are of high importance for the interpretation of S isotope signatures in natural samples (e.g., melt inclusions or volcanic gases).