Andrews J. E.

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J. E.

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Particle export during the Southern Ocean Iron Experiment (SOFeX)

2004-07-26 , Buesseler, Ken O. , Andrews, J. E. , Pike, Steven M. , Charette, Matthew A. , Goldson, Laura E. , Brzezinski, Mark A. , Lance, V. P.

We studied the effect of iron addition on particle export in the Southern Ocean by measuring changes in the distribution of thorium-234 during a 4 week Fe enrichment experiment conducted in the high-silicate high-nitrate waters just south of the Southern Antarctic Circumpolar Current Front at 172.5°W. Decreases in 234Th activity with time in the fertilized mixed layer (0-50m) exceeded those in unfertilized waters, indicating enhanced export of 234Th on sinking particles after Fe enrichment. The addition of Fe also affected export below the fertilized patch by increasing the efficiency of particle export through the 100 m depth horizon. Extensive temporal and vertical Lagrangian sampling allowed us to make a detailed examination of the 234Th flux model, which was used to quantify the fluxes of particulate organic carbon (POC) and biogenic silica (bSiO2). Iron addition increased the flux of both POC and bSiO2 out of the mixed layer by about 300%. The flux at 100 m increased by more than 700% and 600% for POC and bSiO2, respectively. The absolute magnitude of the POC and bSiO2 fluxes were not large relative to natural blooms at these latitudes, or to those found in association with the termination of blooms in other ocean regions. Our results support the hypothesis that Fe addition leads directly to significant particle export and sequestration of C in the deep ocean. This is a key link between ocean Fe inputs and past changes in atmospheric CO2 and climate.

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Beryllium-7 analyses in seawater by low background gamma-spectroscopy

2006-10-11 , Andrews, J. E. , Hartin, C. , Buesseler, Ken O.

7Be is a cosmogenic isotope produced in the stratosphere and troposphere. 7Be has a half-life of 53.4 days and decays to 7Li emitting a 477 keV gamma line with a branching ratio of 0.104. It is predominantly washed out of the atmosphere through wet deposition. It is a tool for oceanographers to study air sea interaction and water mass mixing. Beryllium’s largely non-reactive nature in the open ocean makes it an excellent conservative tracer. Its conservative nature and extreme dilution in seawater also makes it difficult to concentrate and analyze. Early experiments at WHOI with Fe(OH)3 cartridges to directly collect 7Be by insitu underwater pumps proved ineffective. Collection efficiencies of the cartridges were too low to be consistently useful. At sea chemistry of whole water samples became the method of choice. The use of stable 9Be as a yield monitor further improved the accuracy of the procedure. The method was optimized at WHOI in 2005 using a seawater line that enters WHOI’s coastal research lab. The procedure was then used on an oceanographic cruise on the R/V Oceanus out of Bermuda in the oligotrophic Sargasso Sea.