Andrews J. E.

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J. E.

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  • Preprint
    Particle export during the Southern Ocean Iron Experiment (SOFeX)
    ( 2004-07-26) Buesseler, Ken O. ; Andrews, J. E. ; Pike, Steven M. ; Charette, Matthew A. ; Goldson, Laura E. ; Brzezinski, Mark A. ; Lance, V. P.
    We studied the effect of iron addition on particle export in the Southern Ocean by measuring changes in the distribution of thorium-234 during a 4 week Fe enrichment experiment conducted in the high-silicate high-nitrate waters just south of the Southern Antarctic Circumpolar Current Front at 172.5°W. Decreases in 234Th activity with time in the fertilized mixed layer (0-50m) exceeded those in unfertilized waters, indicating enhanced export of 234Th on sinking particles after Fe enrichment. The addition of Fe also affected export below the fertilized patch by increasing the efficiency of particle export through the 100 m depth horizon. Extensive temporal and vertical Lagrangian sampling allowed us to make a detailed examination of the 234Th flux model, which was used to quantify the fluxes of particulate organic carbon (POC) and biogenic silica (bSiO2). Iron addition increased the flux of both POC and bSiO2 out of the mixed layer by about 300%. The flux at 100 m increased by more than 700% and 600% for POC and bSiO2, respectively. The absolute magnitude of the POC and bSiO2 fluxes were not large relative to natural blooms at these latitudes, or to those found in association with the termination of blooms in other ocean regions. Our results support the hypothesis that Fe addition leads directly to significant particle export and sequestration of C in the deep ocean. This is a key link between ocean Fe inputs and past changes in atmospheric CO2 and climate.
  • Article
    238U-Th-230-Ra-226-Pb-210-Po-210, Th-232-Ra-228, and U-235-Pa-231 constraints on the ages and petrogenesis of Vailulu'u and Malumalu Lavas, Samoa
    (American Geophysical Union, 2008-04-01) Sims, Kenneth W. W. ; Hart, Stanley R. ; Reagan, Mark K. ; Blusztajn, Jerzy S. ; Staudigel, Hubert ; Sohn, Robert A. ; Layne, Graham D. ; Ball, Lary A. ; Andrews, J. E.
    We report 238U-230Th-226Ra-210Pb-210Po, 232Th-228Ra and 235U-231Pa measurements for a suite of 14 geologically and geochemically well-characterized basaltic samples from the Samoan volcanoes Vailulu'u, Malumalu, and Savai'i. Maximum eruption ages based on the presence of parent-daughter disequilibria indicate that Vailulu'u is magmatically productive with young lavas (<8 Ka) resurfacing both its summit crater and lower flanks. 210Pb and 210Po measurements indicate that several flows have erupted within its summit crater in the past 100 years, with the newest observed flow being erupted in November of 2004. For lavas which have eruption ages that are demonstrably young, relative to the half-lives of 230Th, 231Pa, and 226Ra, we interpret their 238U -230Th, 235U-231Pa and 230Th - 226Ra disequilibria in terms of the magmatic processes occurring beneath the Samoan Islands. (230Th/238U) > 1 indicates that garnet is required as a residual phase in the magma sources for all these lavas. The large range of (238U/232Th) and (230Th/232Th) is attributed to long-term source variation. The Samoan basalts are all alkaline basalts and show significant 230Th and 231Pa excesses but limited variability, indicating that they have been derived by small but similar extents of melting. Their (230Th/238U), (231Pa/235U) and Sm/Nd fractionation are consistent with correlations among other ocean island basalt suites (particularly Hawaii) which show that (230Th/238U) and (231Pa/235U) of many OIBS can be explained by simple time-independent models. Interpretation of the 226Ra data requires time-dependent melting models. Both chromatographic porous flow and dynamic melting of a garnet peridotite source can adequately explain the combined U-Th-Ra and U-Pa data for these Samoan basalts. Several young samples from the Vailulu'u summit crater also exhibit significant 210Pb deficits that reflect either shallow magmatic processes or continuous magma degassing. In both cases, decadal residence times are inferred from these 210Pb deficits. The young coeval volcanism on Malumalu and Vailulu'u suggests the Samoa hot spot is currently migrating to the northeast due to dynamic interaction with the Tonga slab.
  • Preprint
    Beryllium-7 analyses in seawater by low background gamma-spectroscopy
    ( 2006-10-11) Andrews, J. E. ; Hartin, C. ; Buesseler, Ken O.
    7Be is a cosmogenic isotope produced in the stratosphere and troposphere. 7Be has a half-life of 53.4 days and decays to 7Li emitting a 477 keV gamma line with a branching ratio of 0.104. It is predominantly washed out of the atmosphere through wet deposition. It is a tool for oceanographers to study air sea interaction and water mass mixing. Beryllium’s largely non-reactive nature in the open ocean makes it an excellent conservative tracer. Its conservative nature and extreme dilution in seawater also makes it difficult to concentrate and analyze. Early experiments at WHOI with Fe(OH)3 cartridges to directly collect 7Be by insitu underwater pumps proved ineffective. Collection efficiencies of the cartridges were too low to be consistently useful. At sea chemistry of whole water samples became the method of choice. The use of stable 9Be as a yield monitor further improved the accuracy of the procedure. The method was optimized at WHOI in 2005 using a seawater line that enters WHOI’s coastal research lab. The procedure was then used on an oceanographic cruise on the R/V Oceanus out of Bermuda in the oligotrophic Sargasso Sea.