Holte James W.

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Last Name
Holte
First Name
James W.
ORCID
0000-0002-3451-7572

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Now showing 1 - 4 of 4
  • Article
    Structure and surface properties of eddies in the southeast Pacific Ocean
    (John Wiley & Sons, 2013-05-07) Holte, James W. ; Straneo, Fiamma ; Moffat, Carlos F. ; Weller, Robert A. ; Farrar, J. Thomas
    A number of studies have posited that coastally generated eddies could cool the southeast Pacific Ocean (SEP) by advecting cool, upwelled waters offshore. We examine this mechanism by characterizing the upper-ocean properties of mesoscale eddies in the SEP with a variety of observations and by estimating the surface-layer eddy heat flux divergence with satellite data. Cyclonic and anticyclonic eddies observed during two cruises featured deep positive salinity anomalies along the 26.5 kg m−3isopycnal, indicating that the eddies had likely trapped and transported coastal waters offshore. The cyclonic eddies observed during the cruises were characterized by shoaling isopycnals in the upper 200 m and cool near-surface temperature anomalies, whereas the upper-ocean structure of anticyclonic eddies was more variable. Using a variety of large-scale observations, including Argo float profiles, drifter records, and satellite sea surface temperature fields, we show that, relative to mean conditions, cyclonic eddies are associated with cooler surface temperatures and that anticyclonic eddies are associated with warmer surface temperatures. Within each data set, the mean eddy surface temperature anomalies are small and of approximately equal magnitude but opposite sign. Eddy statistics drawn from satellite altimetry data reveal that cyclonic and anticyclonic eddies occur with similar frequency and have similar average radii in the SEP. A satellite-based estimate of the surface-layer eddy heat flux divergence, while large in coastal regions, is small when averaged over the SEP, suggesting that eddies do not substantially contribute to cooling the surface layer of the SEP.
  • Technical Report
    Stratus 11 : Eleventh Setting of the Stratus Ocean Reference Station Cruise on board RV Moana Wave, March 31 - April 16, 2011, Arica - Arica, Chile
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 2011-09) Bigorre, Sebastien P. ; Lord, Jeffrey ; Galbraith, Nancy R. ; Whelan, Sean P. ; Otto, William ; Holte, James W. ; Bariteau, Ludovic ; Weller, Robert A.
    The Ocean Reference Station at 20°S, 85°W under the stratus clouds west of northern Chile is being maintained to provide ongoing climate-quality records of surface meteorology, air-sea fluxes of heat, freshwater, and momentum, and of upper ocean temperature, salinity, and velocity variability. The Stratus Ocean Reference Station (ORS Stratus) is supported by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA) Climate Observation Program. It is recovered and redeployed annually, with past cruises that have come between October and January. A NOAA vessel was not available, so this cruise was conducted on the chartered ship, Moana Wave, belonging to Stabbert Maritime. During the 2011 cruise on the Moana Wave to the ORS Stratus site, the primary activities were the recovery of the subsurface part of the Stratus 10 WHOI surface mooring, deployment of a new (Stratus 11) WHOI surface mooring, in-situ calibration of the buoy meteorological sensors by comparison with instrumentation installed on the ship by staff of the NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL), and collection of underway and on station oceanographic data to continue to characterize the upper ocean in the stratus region. The Stratus 10 mooring had parted, and the surface buoy and upper part had been recovered earlier. Underway CTD (UCTD) profiles were collected along the track and during surveys dedicated to investigating eddy variability in the region. Surface drifters and subsurface floats were also launched along the track. The intent was also to visit a buoy for the Pacific tsunami warning system maintained by the Hydrographic and Oceanographic Service of the Chilean Navy (SHOA). This DART (Deep- Ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunami) buoy had been deployed in December 2010.
  • Technical Report
    Stratus 12 : twelfth setting of the Stratus Ocean Reference Station
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 2012-10) Bigorre, Sebastien P. ; Weller, Robert A. ; Lord, Jeffrey ; Galbraith, Nancy R. ; Whelan, Sean P. ; Holte, James W. ; Cifuentes, Ursula ; Sanchez, Eric ; Labbe-Ibanez, Pamela A. ; Raboya, Magda Mindiola ; Oltman, Susan ; Denton, Elsie ; Shambaugh, James
    The Ocean Reference Station at 20°S, 85°W under the stratus clouds west of northern Chile is being maintained to provide ongoing climate-quality records of surface meteorology, air-sea fluxes of heat, freshwater, and momentum, and of upper ocean temperature, salinity, and velocity variability. The Stratus Ocean Reference Station (ORS Stratus) is supported by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA) Climate Observation Program. It is recovered and redeployed annually. A NOAA vessel was not available, so this cruise was conducted on the Melville, operated by the Scripps Institution of Oceanography. During the 2012 cruise on the Melville to the ORS Stratus site, the primary activities were the deployment of the Stratus 12 WHOI surface mooring, recovery of the previous (Stratus 11) WHOI surface mooring, in-situ calibration of the buoy meteorological sensors by comparison with instrumentation installed on the ship, and collection of underway and on station oceanographic data to continue to characterize the upper ocean in the stratus region. Underway CTD (UCTD) profiles were collected along the track. Surface drifters and subsurface floats were also launched along the track.
  • Article
    Heat and salinity budgets at the Stratus mooring in the southeast Pacific
    (John Wiley & Sons, 2014-11-28) Holte, James W. ; Straneo, Fiamma ; Farrar, J. Thomas ; Weller, Robert A.
    The surface layer of the southeast Pacific Ocean (SEP) requires an input of cold, fresh water to balance heat gain, and evaporation from air-sea fluxes. Models typically fail to reproduce the cool sea surface temperatures (SST) of the SEP, limiting our ability to understand the variability of this climatically important region. We estimate the annual heat budget of the SEP for the period 2004–2009, using data from the upper 250 m of the Stratus mooring, located at 85°W 20°S, and from Argo floats. The surface buoy measures meteorological conditions and air-sea fluxes; the mooring line is heavily instrumented, measuring temperature, salinity, and velocity at more than 15 depth levels. We use a new method for estimating the advective component of the heat budget that combines Argo profiles and mooring velocity data, allowing us to calculate monthly profiles of heat advection. Averaged over the 6 year study period, we estimate a cooling advective heat flux of −41 ± 29 W m−2, accomplished by a combination of the mean gyre circulation, Ekman transport, and eddies. This compensates for warming fluxes of 32 ± 4 W m−2 due to air-sea fluxes and 7 ± 9 W m−2 due to vertical mixing and Ekman pumping. A salinity budget exhibits a similar balance, with advection of freshwater (−60 psu m) replenishing the freshwater lost through evaporation (47 psu m) and Ekman pumping (14 psu m).