Cooper Lee W.

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Lee W.

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  • Article
    Isotopic signals (18O, 2H, 3H) of six major rivers draining the pan-Arctic watershed
    (American Geophysical Union, 2012-03-22) Yi, Y. ; Gibson, J. J. ; Cooper, Lee W. ; Helie, J.-F. ; Birks, S. J. ; McClelland, James W. ; Holmes, Robert M. ; Peterson, Bruce J.
    We present the results of a 4-year collaborative sampling effort that measured δ18O, δ2H values and 3H activities in the six largest Arctic rivers (the Ob, Yenisey, Lena, Kolyma, Yukon and Mackenzie). Using consistent sampling and data processing protocols, these isotopic measurements provide the best available δ2H and 3H estimates for freshwater fluxes from the pan-Arctic watershed to the Arctic Ocean and adjacent seas, which complements previous efforts with δ18O and other tracers. Flow-weighted annual δ2H values vary from −113.3‰ to −171.4‰ among rivers. Annual 3H fluxes vary from 0.68 g to 4.12 g among basins. The integration of conventional hydrological and landscape observations with stable water isotope signals, and estimation of areal yield of 3H provide useful insights for understanding water sources, mixing and evaporation losses in these river basins. For example, an inverse correlation between the slope of the δ18O-δ2H relation and wetland extent indicates that wetlands play comparatively important roles affecting evaporation losses in the Yukon and Mackenzie basins. Tritium areal yields (ranging from 0.760 to 1.695 10−6 g/km2 per year) are found to be positively correlated with permafrost coverage within the studied drainage basins. Isotope-discharge relationships demonstrate both linear and nonlinear response patterns, which highlights the complexity of hydrological processes in large Arctic river basins. These isotope observations and their relationship to discharge and landscape features indicate that basin-specific characteristics significantly influence hydrological processes in the pan-Arctic watershed.
  • Article
    Thinking outside the channel : modeling nitrogen cycling in networked river ecosystems
    (Ecological Society of America, 2010-09-08) Helton, Ashley M. ; Poole, Geoffrey C. ; Meyer, Judy L. ; Wollheim, Wilfred M. ; Peterson, Bruce J. ; Mulholland, Patrick J. ; Bernhardt, Emily S. ; Stanford, Jack A. ; Arango, Clay P. ; Ashkenas, Linda R. ; Cooper, Lee W. ; Dodds, Walter K. ; Gregory, Stanley V. ; Hall, Robert O. ; Hamilton, Stephen K. ; Johnson, Sherri L. ; McDowell, William H. ; Potter, Jody D. ; Tank, Jennifer L. ; Thomas, Suzanne M. ; Valett, H. Maurice ; Webster, Jackson R. ; Zeglin, Lydia
    Agricultural and urban development alters nitrogen and other biogeochemical cycles in rivers worldwide. Because such biogeochemical processes cannot be measured empirically across whole river networks, simulation models are critical tools for understanding river-network biogeochemistry. However, limitations inherent in current models restrict our ability to simulate biogeochemical dynamics among diverse river networks. We illustrate these limitations using a river-network model to scale up in situ measures of nitrogen cycling in eight catchments spanning various geophysical and land-use conditions. Our model results provide evidence that catchment characteristics typically excluded from models may control river-network biogeochemistry. Based on our findings, we identify important components of a revised strategy for simulating biogeochemical dynamics in river networks, including approaches to modeling terrestrial–aquatic linkages, hydrologic exchanges between the channel, floodplain/riparian complex, and subsurface waters, and interactions between coupled biogeochemical cycles.
  • Preprint
    Stream denitrification across biomes and its response to anthropogenic nitrate loading
    ( 2007-06-06) Mulholland, Patrick J. ; Helton, Ashley M. ; Poole, Geoffrey C. ; Hall, Robert O. ; Hamilton, Stephen K. ; Peterson, Bruce J. ; Tank, Jennifer L. ; Ashkenas, Linda R. ; Cooper, Lee W. ; Dahm, Clifford N. ; Dodds, Walter K. ; Findlay, Stuart E. G. ; Gregory, Stanley V. ; Grimm, Nancy B. ; Johnson, Sherri L. ; McDowell, William H. ; Meyer, Judy L. ; Valett, H. Maurice ; Webster, Jackson R. ; Arango, Clay P. ; Beaulieu, Jake J. ; Bernot, Melody J. ; Burgin, Amy J. ; Crenshaw, Chelsea L. ; Johnson, Laura T. ; Niederlehner, B. R. ; O'Brien, Jonathan M. ; Potter, Jody D. ; Sheibley, Richard W. ; Sobota, Daniel J. ; Thomas, Suzanne M.
    Worldwide, anthropogenic addition of bioavailable nitrogen (N) to the biosphere is increasing and terrestrial ecosystems are becoming increasingly N saturated, causing more bioavailable N to enter groundwater and surface waters. Large-scale N budgets show that an average of about 20-25% of the N added to the biosphere is exported from rivers to the ocean or inland basins, indicating substantial sinks for N must exist in the landscape. Streams and rivers may be important sinks for bioavailable N owing to their hydrologic connections with terrestrial systems, high rates of biological activity, and streambed sediment environments that favor microbial denitrification. Here, using data from 15N tracer experiments replicated across 72 streams and 8 regions representing several biomes, we show that total biotic uptake and denitrification of nitrate increase with stream nitrate concentration, but that the efficiency of biotic uptake and denitrification declines as concentration increases, reducing the proportion of instream nitrate that is removed from transport. Total uptake of nitrate was related to ecosystem photosynthesis and denitrification was related to ecosystem respiration. Additionally, we use a stream network model to demonstrate that excess nitrate in streams elicits a disproportionate increase in the fraction of nitrate that is exported to receiving waters and reduces the relative role of small versus large streams as nitrate sinks.
  • Article
    Biomass offsets little or none of permafrost carbon release from soils, streams, and wildfire : an expert assessment
    (IOPScience, 2016-03-07) Abbott, Benjamin W. ; Jones, Jeremy B. ; Schuur, Edward A. G. ; Chapin, F. Stuart ; Bowden, William B. ; Bret-Harte, M. Syndonia ; Epstein, Howard E. ; Flannigan, Michael ; Harms, Tamara K. ; Hollingsworth, Teresa N. ; Mack, Michelle C. ; McGuire, A. David ; Natali, Susan M. ; Rocha, Adrian V. ; Tank, Suzanne E. ; Turetsky, Merritt R. ; Vonk, Jorien E. ; Wickland, Kimberly ; Aiken, George R. ; Alexander, Heather D. ; Amon, Rainer M. W. ; Benscoter, Brian ; Bergeron, Yves ; Bishop, Kevin ; Blarquez, Olivier ; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin ; Breen, Amy L. ; Buffam, Ishi ; Cai, Yihua ; Carcaillet, Christopher ; Carey, Sean K. ; Chen, Jing M. ; Chen, Han Y. H. ; Christensen, Torben R. ; Cooper, Lee W. ; Cornelissen, Johannes H. C. ; de Groot, William J. ; DeLuca, Thomas Henry ; Dorrepaal, Ellen ; Fetcher, Ned ; Finlay, Jacques C. ; Forbes, Bruce C. ; French, Nancy H. F. ; Gauthier, Sylvie ; Girardin, Martin ; Goetz, Scott J. ; Goldammer, Johann G. ; Gough, Laura ; Grogan, Paul ; Guo, Laodong ; Higuera, Philip E. ; Hinzman, Larry ; Hu, Feng Sheng ; Hugelius, Gustaf ; JAFAROV, ELCHIN ; Jandt, Randi ; Johnstone, Jill F. ; Karlsson, Jan ; Kasischke, Eric S. ; Kattner, Gerhard ; Kelly, Ryan ; Keuper, Frida ; Kling, George W. ; Kortelainen, Pirkko ; Kouki, Jari ; Kuhry, Peter ; Laudon, Hjalmar ; Laurion, Isabelle ; Macdonald, Robie W. ; Mann, Paul J. ; Martikainen, Pertti ; McClelland, James W. ; Molau, Ulf ; Oberbauer, Steven F. ; Olefeldt, David ; Paré, David ; Parisien, Marc-André ; Payette, Serge ; Peng, Changhui ; Pokrovsky, Oleg ; Rastetter, Edward B. ; Raymond, Peter A. ; Raynolds, Martha K. ; Rein, Guillermo ; Reynolds, James F. ; Robards, Martin ; Rogers, Brendan ; Schädel, Christina ; Schaefer, Kevin ; Schmidt, Inger K. ; Shvidenko, Anatoly ; Sky, Jasper ; Spencer, Robert G. M. ; Starr, Gregory ; Striegl, Robert ; Teisserenc, Roman ; Tranvik, Lars J. ; Virtanen, Tarmo ; Welker, Jeffrey M. ; Zimov, Sergey A.
    As the permafrost region warms, its large organic carbon pool will be increasingly vulnerable to decomposition, combustion, and hydrologic export. Models predict that some portion of this release will be offset by increased production of Arctic and boreal biomass; however, the lack of robust estimates of net carbon balance increases the risk of further overshooting international emissions targets. Precise empirical or model-based assessments of the critical factors driving carbon balance are unlikely in the near future, so to address this gap, we present estimates from 98 permafrost-region experts of the response of biomass, wildfire, and hydrologic carbon flux to climate change. Results suggest that contrary to model projections, total permafrost-region biomass could decrease due to water stress and disturbance, factors that are not adequately incorporated in current models. Assessments indicate that end-of-the-century organic carbon release from Arctic rivers and collapsing coastlines could increase by 75% while carbon loss via burning could increase four-fold. Experts identified water balance, shifts in vegetation community, and permafrost degradation as the key sources of uncertainty in predicting future system response. In combination with previous findings, results suggest the permafrost region will become a carbon source to the atmosphere by 2100 regardless of warming scenario but that 65%–85% of permafrost carbon release can still be avoided if human emissions are actively reduced.
  • Article
    Flow-weighted values of runoff tracers (δ18O, DOC, Ba, alkalinity) from the six largest Arctic rivers
    (American Geophysical Union, 2008-09-20) Cooper, Lee W. ; McClelland, James W. ; Holmes, Robert M. ; Raymond, Peter A. ; Gibson, J. J. ; Guay, Christopher K. ; Peterson, Bruce J.
    We present new flow-weighted data for δ 18OH2O, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved barium and total alkalinity from the six largest Arctic rivers: the Ob', Yenisey, Lena, Kolyma, Yukon and Mackenzie. These data, which can be used to trace runoff, are based upon coordinated collections between 2003 and 2006 that were temporally distributed to capture linked seasonal dynamics of river flow and tracer values. Individual samples indicate significant variation in the contributions each river makes to the Arctic Ocean. Use of these new flow-weighted estimates should reduce uncertainties in the analysis of freshwater transport and fate in the upper Arctic Ocean, including the links to North Atlantic thermohaline circulation, as well as regional water mass analysis. Additional improvements should also be possible for assessing the mineralization rate of the globally significant flux of terrigenous DOC contributed to the Arctic Ocean by these major rivers.
  • Article
    The relationship between patterns of benthic fauna and zooplankton in the Chukchi Sea and physical forcing
    (The Oceanography Society, 2015-09) Pisareva, Maria N. ; Pickart, Robert S. ; Iken, Katrin ; Ershova, Elizaveta A. ; Grebmeier, Jacqueline M. ; Cooper, Lee W. ; Bluhm, Bodil A. ; Nobre, Carolina ; Hopcroft, Russell R. ; Hu, Haoguo ; Wang, Jia ; Ashjian, Carin J. ; Kosobokova, Ksenia N. ; Whitledge, Terry E.
    Using data from a number of summer surveys of the Chukchi Sea over the past decade, we investigate aspects in which the benthic fauna, sediment structure, and zooplankton there are related to circulation patterns and shelf hydrographic conditions. A flow speed map is constructed that reveals the major pathways on the shelf. Regions of enhanced flow speed are dictated by lateral constrictions—in particular, Bering Strait and Barrow and Herald Canyons—and by sloping topography near coastlines. For the most part, benthic epifaunal and macrofaunal suspension feeders are found in high flow regimes, while deposit feeders are located in regions of weaker flow. The major exceptions are in Bering Strait, where benthic sampling was underrepresented, and in Herald Canyon where the pattern is inexplicably reversed. Sediment grain size is also largely consistent with variations in flow speed on the shelf. Data from three biophysical surveys of the Chukchi Sea, carried out as part of the Russian-American Long-term Census of the Arctic program, reveal close relationships between the water masses and the zooplankton communities on the shelf. Variations in atmospheric forcing, particularly wind, during the three sampling periods caused significant changes in the lateral and vertical distributions of the summer and winter water masses. These water mass changes, in turn, were reflected in the amounts and species of zooplankton observed throughout the shelf in each survey. Our study highlights the close relationship between physical drivers (wind forcing, water masses, circulation, and sediment type) in the Chukchi Sea and the biological signals in the benthos and the plankton on a variety of time scales.
  • Article
    Linkages among runoff, dissolved organic carbon, and the stable oxygen isotope composition of seawater and other water mass indicators in the Arctic Ocean
    (American Geophysical Union, 2005-12-07) Cooper, Lee W. ; Benner, Ronald ; McClelland, James W. ; Peterson, Bruce J. ; Holmes, Robert M. ; Raymond, Peter A. ; Hansell, Dennis A. ; Grebmeier, Jacqueline M. ; Codispoti, Louis A.
    Concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and δ18O values have been determined following sampling of runoff from a number of major arctic rivers, including the Ob, Yenisey, Lena, Kolyma, Mackenzie and Yukon in 2003-2004. These data are considered in conjunction with marine data for DOC, δ18O values, nutrients, salinity, and fluorometric indicators of DOC that were obtained as part of the Shelf-Basin Interactions program at the continental shelf-basin boundary of the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas. These marine data indicate that the freshwater component is most likely derived from regional sources, such as the Mackenzie, the Bering Strait inflow and possibly eastern Siberian rivers, including the Kolyma, or the Lena but not rivers further west in the Eurasian arctic. Contributions of freshwater from melted sea ice to marine surface waters appeared to be insignificant over annual cycles compared to runoff, although on a seasonal basis, freshwater from melted sea ice was locally dominant following a major sea-ice retreat into the Canada Basin in 2002. DOC concentrations were correlated with the runoff fraction, with an apparent meteoric water DOC concentration of 174 ± 1 μM (standard error). This concentration is lower than the flow-weighted concentrations measured at river mouths of the five largest Arctic rivers (358 to 917 μM), indicating that removal of terrigenous DOC during transport through estuaries, shelves and in the deep basin. DOC data indicate that flow-weighted concentrations in the two largest North American arctic rivers, the Yukon (625μM) and the Mackenzie (382 μM), are lower than in the three largest Eurasian arctic rivers, the Ob (825 μM), the Yenesey (858 μM) and the Lena (917 μM). A fluorometric indicator of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) that has provided estimates of terrigenous DOC concentrations in the Eurasian Arctic was not correlated with DOC concentrations in the Amerasian marine waters studied, except below the upper Arctic Ocean halocline. Nutrient distributions and concentrations as well as derived nutrient ratios suggest the CDOM fluorometer may be responding to the release of chromophoric materials from continental shelf sediments. Shipboard incubation experiments with undisturbed sediment cores indicate that continental shelf sediments on the Bering and Chukchi Sea shelves are likely to be a net source of DOC to the Arctic Ocean.