Walker Brett D.

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Brett D.

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  • Article
    Marine organic carbon and radiocarbon – present and future challenges
    (Cambridge University Press, 2022-01-25) Druffel, Ellen R. M. ; Beaupre, Steven R. ; Grotheer, Hendrik ; Lewis, Christian B. ; McNichol, Ann P. ; Mollenhauer, Gesine ; Walker, Brett D.
    We discuss present and developing techniques for studying radiocarbon in marine organic carbon (C). Bulk DOC (dissolved organic C) Δ14C measurements reveal information about the cycling time and sources of DOC in the ocean, yet they are time consuming and need to be streamlined. To further elucidate the cycling of DOC, various fractions have been separated from bulk DOC, through solid phase extraction of DOC, and ultrafiltration of high and low molecular weight DOC. Research using 14C of DOC and particulate organic C separated into organic fractions revealed that the acid insoluble fraction is similar in 14C signature to that of the lipid fraction. Plans for utilizing this methodology are described. Studies using compound specific radiocarbon analyses to study the origin of biomarkers in the marine environment are reviewed and plans for the future are outlined. Development of ramped pyrolysis oxidation methods are discussed and scientific questions addressed. A modified elemental analysis (EA) combustion reactor is described that allows high particulate organic C sample throughput by direct coupling with the MIniCArbonDAtingSystem.
  • Article
    Dissolved organic radiocarbon in the central Pacific Ocean
    (American Geophysical Union, 2019-05-02) Druffel, Ellen R. M. ; Griffin, Sheila ; Wang, Ning ; Garcia, Noreen G. ; McNichol, Ann P. ; Key, Robert M. ; Walker, Brett D.
    We report marine dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations, and DOC ∆14C and δ13C values in seawater collected from the central Pacific. Surface ∆14C values are low in equatorial and polar regions where upwelling occurs and high in subtropical regions dominated by downwelling. A core feature of these data is that 14C aging of DOC (682 ± 86 14C years) and dissolved inorganic carbon (643 ± 40 14C years) in Antarctic Bottom Water between 54.0°S and 53.5°N are similar. These estimates of aging are minimum values due to mixing with deep waters. We also observe minimum ∆14C values (−550‰ to −570‰) between the depths of 2,000 and 3,500 m in the North Pacific, though the source of the low values cannot be determined at this time.
  • Article
    Dissolved organic radiocarbon in the eastern Pacific and Southern Oceans
    (American Geophysical Union, 2021-05-24) Druffel, Ellen R. M. ; Griffin, Sheila ; Lewis, Christian B. ; Rudresh, Megha ; Garcia, Noreen G. ; Key, Robert M. ; McNichol, Ann P. ; Hauksson, Niels E. ; Walker, Brett D.
    We report marine dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations, and DOC Δ14C and δ13C values in seawater collected from the Southern Ocean and eastern Pacific GOSHIP cruise P18 in 2016/2017. The aging of 14C in DOC in circumpolar deep water northward from 69°S to 20°N was similar to that measured in dissolved inorganic carbon in the same samples, indicating that the transport of deep waters northward is the primary control of 14C in DIC and DOC. Low DOC ∆14C and δ13C measurements between 1,200 and 3,400 m depth may be evidence of a source of DOC produced in nearby hydrothermal ridge systems (East Pacific Rise).