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ArticleVariability of deep water in Jordan Basin of the Gulf of Maine: influence of Gulf Stream warm core rings and the Nova Scotia Current(American Geophysical Union, 2021-05-06) Du, Jiabi ; Zhang, Weifeng G. ; Li, YizhenAs the nutrient-rich subsurface slope water intruding into the deep basin of the Gulf of Maine (GoM) supports the high biological productivity in the semi-enclosed gulf, it is important to understand the process and time scale of such slope water intrusion. This study focuses on variations of the GoM deep water on seasonal to interannual time scales and the influences of open ocean processes on the temporal variation of the deep water properties. Based on long-term monitoring data, it is found that the deep water at Jordan Basin (one of three major basins in the GoM) is persistently warmer in winter than in summer, which is distinctly different from the seasonality of surface water in the basin and the deep water on neighboring shelf seas. The unique seasonality in the deep GoM reflects a time-lagged response to shoreward intrusion of the subsurface slope water off the GoM. Both observation-based lag-correlation analyses and numerical simulations confirm a timescale of approximately 3 months for the intruding subsurface slope water to flow from Northeast Channel to Jordan Basin. Properties of the intruding slope water at the Northeast Channel were significantly correlated with the Gulf Stream position and dramatically impacted by episodic warm-core rings shed from Gulf Stream. Inside the deep GoM, the intruding slope water was also indirectly affected by the fresher water input from Nova Scotia Current. Spreading of the fresher water inside the gulf strengthens near-surface stratification, suppresses deep convection, and preserves heat and salt in the deep GoM during the wintertime.
ArticleParticle triggered reactions as an important mechanism of alkalinity and inorganic carbon removal in river plumes(American Geophysical Union, 2021-05-20) Wurgaft, Eyal ; Wang, Zhaohui Aleck ; Churchill, James H. ; Dellapenna, Timothy M. ; Song, Shuzhen ; Du, Jiabi ; Ringham, Mallory C. ; Rivlin, Tanya ; Lazar, BoazThe effects of heterogeneous reactions between river-borne particles and the carbonate system were studied in the plumes of the Mississippi and Brazos rivers. Measurements within these plumes revealed significant removal of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and total alkalinity (TA). After accounting for all known DIC and TA sinks and sources, heterogeneous reactions (i.e., heterogeneous CaCO3 precipitation and cation exchange between adsorbed and dissolved ions) were found to be responsible for a significant fraction of DIC and TA removal, exceeding 10% and 90%, respectively, in the Mississippi and Brazos plume waters. This finding was corroborated by laboratory experiments, in which the seeding of seawater with the riverine particles induced the removal of the DIC and TA. The combined results demonstrate that heterogeneous reactions may represent an important controlling mechanism of the seawater carbonate system in particle-rich coastal areas and may significantly impact the coastal carbon cycle.
ArticleSimple relationships between residence time and annual nutrient retention, export, and loading for estuaries(Association for the Sciences of Limnology and Oceanography, 2022-02-27) Shen, Jian ; Du, Jiabi ; Lucas, Lisa V.Simple mathematical models are derived from mass balances for water and transported substance to provide insight into the relationships between import, export, transport, and internal removal for nonconservative substances in an estuary. Extending previous work, our models explicitly include water and substance inputs from the ocean and are expressed in terms of timescales (i.e., mean residence time and the timescale for net removal). Steady-state, timescale-based expressions for ratios of export to import, retention to import, and net export to loading, as well as for loading and annually averaged concentration, are provided. The net export:loading model explains the underlying mechanisms for a well-known empirical relationship between fractional net export and residence time derived by other authors. Although our simplified models are first-order approximations, the relative importance of physical and biochemical processes influencing export or retention of a substance can be assessed using mean residence time and the timescale for net removal. Assumptions employed in deriving the simplified models (e.g., well-mixed, dynamic steady state) may not be met for real estuaries. However, model application to Chesapeake Bay for 1985–2012 demonstrates that interannual variations in total nitrogen (TN) net export:loading can be evaluated, and annual nutrient loadings can be well estimated using numerically modeled time-varying mean residence time, observation-based mean concentration, freshwater inflow, and an appropriately estimated removal timescale. Our model shows that net fractional export of TN loading ranges from 0.3 to 0.5 over the 28-yr period. The models can be employed for other substances and water bodies if the underlying assumptions are applicable.
ArticleImpact of Gulf Stream warm-core rings on slope water intrusion into the Gulf of Maine(American Meteorological Society, 2022-08-01) Du, Jiabi ; Zhang, Weifeng G. ; Li, YizhenIntruding slope water is a major source of nutrients to sustain the high biological productivity in the Gulf of Maine (GoM). Slope water intrusion into the GoM is affected by Gulf Stream warm-core rings (WCRs) impinging onto the nearby shelf edge. This study combines long-term mooring measurements, satellite remote sensing data, an idealized numerical ocean model, and a linear coastal-trapped wave (CTW) model to examine the impact of WCRs on slope water intrusion into the GoM through the Northeast Channel. Analysis of satellite sea surface height and temperature data shows that the slope sea region off the GoM is a hotspot of ring activities. A significant linear relationship is found between interannual variations of ring activities in the slope sea region off the GoM and bottom salinity at the Northeast Channel, suggesting the importance of WCRs in modulating variability of intruding slope water. Analysis of the mooring data reveals enhanced slope water intrusion through bottom-intensified along-channel flow following impingements of WCRs on the nearby shelf edge. Numerical simulations qualitatively reproduce the observed WCR impingement processes and associated episodic enhancement of slope water intrusion in the Northeast Channel. Diagnosis of the model result indicates that baroclinic CTWs excited by the ring–topography interaction are responsible for the episodically intensified subsurface along-channel inflow, which carries more slope water into the GoM. A WCR that impinges onto the shelf edge to the northeast of the Northeast Channel tends to generate stronger CTWs and cause stronger enhancement of the slope water intrusion into the GoM.
ArticleA machine-learning-based model for water quality in coastal waters, taking dissolved oxygen and hypoxia in Chesapeake Bay as an example(American Geophysical Union, 2020-08-25) Yu, Xin ; Shen, Jian ; Du, JiabiHypoxia is a big concern in coastal waters as it affects ecosystem health, fishery yield, and marine water resources. Accurately modeling coastal hypoxia is still very challenging even with the most advanced numerical models. A data‐driven model for coastal water quality is proposed in this study and is applied to predict the temporal‐spatial variations of dissolved oxygen (DO) and hypoxic condition in Chesapeake Bay, the largest estuary in the United States with mean summer hypoxic zone extending about 150 km along its main axis. The proposed model has three major components including empirical orthogonal functions analysis, automatic selection of forcing transformation, and neural network training. It first uses empirical orthogonal functions to extract the principal components, then applies neural network to train models for the temporal variations of principal components, and finally reconstructs the three‐dimensional temporal‐spatial variations of the DO. Using the first 75% of the 32‐year (1985–2016) data set for training, the model shows good performance for the testing period (the remaining 25% data set). Selection of forcings for the first mode points to the dominant role of streamflow in controlling interannual variability of bay‐wide DO condition. Different from previous empirical models, the approach is able to simulate three‐dimensional variations of water quality variables and it does not use in situ measured water quality variables but only external forcings as model inputs. Even though the approach is used for the hypoxia problem in Chesapeake Bay, the methodology is readily applicable to other coastal systems that are systematically monitored.
ArticleUse of settlement patterns and geochemical tagging to test population connectivity of eastern oysters Crassostrea virginica(Inter Research, 2021-09-02) Gancel, Haley N. ; Carmichael, Ruth H. ; Du, Jiabi ; Park, KyeongFreshwater-dominated estuaries experience large fluctuations in their physical and chemical environments which may influence larval dispersal, settlement, and connectivity of populations with pelagic larval stages. We used settlement patterns and natural tagging along with numerical hydrodynamic model results to assess settlement and connectivity among oysters across the freshwater-dominated Mobile Bay-eastern Mississippi Sound (MB-EMS) system. Specifically, we (1) tested how freshwater inputs and associated environmental attributes influenced settlement patterns during high and low discharge conditions in 2014 and 2016, respectively, and (2) analyzed trace element (TE) ratios incorporated into multiple shell types (larval and settled shell of spat and adult shells) to determine if shells collected in situ incorporate temporally stable site-specific signatures. We also assessed if TE ratios compared between adult (TE natal signature proxy) and larval shells could infer connectivity. Larval settlement was 4× higher during low discharge than during high discharge when oyster larvae only settled in higher salinity regions (EMS). Spat and adult shells incorporated site-specific TE ratios that varied from weeks to months. Connectivity results (May-June 2016 only) suggest that EMS is an important larval source to EMS and lower MB. While we were able to infer probable connectivity patterns using adult and larval shells, more study is needed to assess the utility of adult shells as proxies for natal-location TE signatures. Results provide a baseline for measuring future larval connectivity and adult distribution changes in the MB-EMS system. Biological and geochemical data demonstrate the potential to identify environmental attributes that spatiotemporally mediate settlement and connectivity in dynamic systems.