Young Craig M.

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Craig M.

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  • Preprint
    Invertebrate communities on historical shipwrecks in the western Atlantic : relation to islands
    ( 2017-02) Meyer, Kirstin S. ; Brooke, Sandra ; Sweetman, Andrew K. ; Wolf, Maya ; Young, Craig M.
    Shipwrecks can be considered island-like habitats on the seafloor. We investigated the fauna of eight historical shipwrecks off the east coast of the U.S. to assess whether species distribution patterns on the shipwrecks fit models from classical island theory. Invertebrates on the shipwrecks included both sessile (sponges, anemones, hydroids) and motile (crustaceans, echinoderms) species. Invertebrate communities were significantly different among wrecks. The size and distance between wrecks influenced the biotic communities, much like on terrestrial islands. However, while wreck size influenced species richness (alpha diversity), distance to the nearest wreck influenced community composition (beta diversity). Alpha and beta diversity on the shipwrecks were thus influenced by different abiotic factors. We found no evidence of either nested patterns or non-random co-occurrence of morphotypes, suggesting that the taxa on a given shipwreck were randomly selected from the available taxon pool. Species present on the shipwrecks generally had one of two reproductive modes: most motile or solitary sessile species had long-duration planktotrophic larvae, while most encrusting or colonial sessile species had short-duration lecithotrophic larvae and underwent asexual reproduction by budding as adults. Short-duration larvae may recruit to their natal shipwreck, allowing them to build up dense populations and dominate the wreck surfaces. A high degree of dominance was indeed observed on the wrecks, with up to 80% of the fauna being accounted for by the most common species alone. By comparing the shipwreck communities to known patterns of succession in shallow water, we hypothesize that the shipwrecks are in a stage of mid-succession.
  • Article
    Vailulu’u Seamount
    (Oceanography Society, 2010-03) Koppers, Anthony A. P. ; Staudigel, Hubert ; Hart, Stanley R. ; Young, Craig M. ; Konter, Jasper G.
    Vailulu’u seamount is an active underwater volcano that marks the end of the Samoan hotspot trail.
  • Article
    SyPRID sampler : a large-volume, high-resolution, autonomous, deep-ocean precision plankton sampling system
    (Elsevier, 2016-05-19) Billings, Andrew F. ; Kaiser, Carl ; Young, Craig M. ; Hiebert, Laurel S. ; Cole, Eli ; Wagner, Jamie K.S. ; Van Dover, Cindy
    The current standard for large-volume (thousands of cubic meters) zooplankton sampling in the deep sea is the MOCNESS, a system of multiple opening–closing nets, typically lowered to within 50 m of the seabed and towed obliquely to the surface to obtain low-spatial-resolution samples that integrate across 10 s of meters of water depth. The SyPRID (Sentry Precision Robotic Impeller Driven) sampler is an innovative, deep-rated (6000 m) plankton sampler that partners with the Sentry Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) to obtain paired, large-volume plankton samples at specified depths and survey lines to within 1.5 m of the seabed and with simultaneous collection of sensor data. SyPRID uses a perforated Ultra-High-Molecular-Weight (UHMW) plastic tube to support a fine mesh net within an outer carbon composite tube (tube-within-a-tube design), with an axial flow pump located aft of the capture filter. The pump facilitates flow through the system and reduces or possibly eliminates the bow wave at the mouth opening. The cod end, a hollow truncated cone, is also made of UHMW plastic and includes a collection volume designed to provide an area where zooplankton can collect, out of the high flow region. SyPRID attaches as a saddle-pack to the Sentry vehicle. Sentry itself is configured with a flight control system that enables autonomous survey paths to low altitudes. In its verification deployment at the Blake Ridge Seep (2160 m) on the US Atlantic Margin, SyPRID was operated for 6 h at an altitude of 5 m. It recovered plankton samples, including delicate living larvae, from the near-bottom stratum that is seldom sampled by a typical MOCNESS tow. The prototype SyPRID and its next generations will enable studies of plankton or other particulate distributions associated with localized physico-chemical strata in the water column or above patchy habitats on the seafloor.
  • Preprint
    Oceanographic and biological influences on recruitment of benthic invertebrates to hard substrata on the Oregon shelf
    ( 2018-04) Meyer, Kirstin S. ; Li, Yizhen ; Young, Craig M.
    The number of anthropogenic substrata in the ocean – structures like oil rigs and offshore renewable energy generators – is increasing. These structures provide hard-bottom habitat in areas previously dominated by sand or mud, so they have the potential to alter species distributions or serve as “stepping-stones” between other hard-bottom habitats. It is thus important to understand what factors influence the composition and abundance of benthic fauna recruiting at these sites. We examined recruitment to hard substrata (fouling panels) deployed on sand at various distances from a large rocky reef (~60 m isobath) on the southern Oregon coast in 2014 – 2015. Recruitment was dominated by the acorn barnacle Hesperibalanus hesperius. For the majority of the study period in 2014, an anti-cyclonic eddy was present near the deployment sites. However, anomalously high recruitment of H. hesperius during August – early October 2014 coincided with dissipation of the eddy, slower bottom currents, and a positive convergence index, suggesting that H. hesperius larvae from the adjacent area may have been accumulated and retained near our study sites. Other sessile species, including hydroids and bryozoans, recruited to the fouling panels in low abundances, and most of these species have long-range dispersal and fast growth. Mobile invertebrates observed on the fouling panels included gastropods and nudibranchs, most of which also have long-range dispersal and fast growth, and are predators as adults. Thus, a community with two trophic levels assembled on the fouling panels in a relatively short time period (<12 weeks). None of the common hard-bottom species from the adjacent rocky reef recruited to the panels, suggesting that there is a specialized assemblage of species that can exploit hard-bottom habitats surrounded by sandy plains. Our results raise many questions about the influences of dispersal and oceanographic conditions on recruitment to hard substrata.
  • Article
    Vailulu'u Seamount, Samoa : life and death on an active submarine volcano
    (National Academy of Sciences, 2006-04-13) Staudigel, Hubert ; Hart, Stanley R. ; Pile, Adele ; Bailey, Bradley E. ; Baker, Edward T. ; Brooke, Sandra ; Connelly, Douglas P. ; Haucke, Lisa ; German, Christopher R. ; Hudson, Ian ; Jones, Daniel O. B. ; Koppers, Anthony A. P. ; Konter, Jasper G. ; Lee, Ray ; Pietsch, Theodore W. ; Tebo, Bradley M. ; Templeton, Alexis S. ; Zierenberg, Robert ; Young, Craig M.
    Submersible exploration of the Samoan hotspot revealed a new, 300-m-tall, volcanic cone, named Nafanua, in the summit crater of Vailulu'u seamount. Nafanua grew from the 1,000-m-deep crater floor in <4 years and could reach the sea surface within decades. Vents fill Vailulu'u crater with a thick suspension of particulates and apparently toxic fluids that mix with seawater entering from the crater breaches. Low-temperature vents form Fe oxide chimneys in many locations and up to 1-m-thick layers of hydrothermal Fe floc on Nafanua. High-temperature (81°C) hydrothermal vents in the northern moat (945-m water depth) produce acidic fluids (pH 2.7) with rising droplets of (probably) liquid CO2. The Nafanua summit vent area is inhabited by a thriving population of eels (Dysommina rugosa) that feed on midwater shrimp probably concentrated by anticyclonic currents at the volcano summit and rim. The moat and crater floor around the new volcano are littered with dead metazoans that apparently died from exposure to hydrothermal emissions. Acid-tolerant polychaetes (Polynoidae) live in this environment, apparently feeding on bacteria from decaying fish carcasses. Vailulu'u is an unpredictable and very active underwater volcano presenting a potential long-term volcanic hazard. Although eels thrive in hydrothermal vents at the summit of Nafanua, venting elsewhere in the crater causes mass mortality. Paradoxically, the same anticyclonic currents that deliver food to the eels may also concentrate a wide variety of nektonic animals in a death trap of toxic hydrothermal fluids.
  • Article
    Reproduction of gastropods from vents on the East Pacific Rise and the Mid-Atlantic Ridge
    (National Shellfisheries Association, 2008-03) Tyler, Paul A. ; Pendlebury, Sophie ; Mills, Susan W. ; Mullineaux, Lauren S. ; Eckelbarger, Kevin J. ; Baker, Maria C. ; Young, Craig M.
    The gametogenic biology is described for seven species of gastropod from hydrothermal vents in the East Pacific and from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Species of the limpet genus Lepetodrilus (Family Lepetodrilidae) had a maximum unfertilized oocyte size of <90 μm and there was no evidence of reproductive periodicity or spatial variation in reproductive pattern. Individuals showed early maturity with females undergoing gametogenesis at less than one third maximum body size. There was a power relationship between shell length and fecundity, with a maximum of 1,800 oocytes being found in one individual, although individual fecundity was usually <1,000. Such an egg size might be indicative of planktotrophic larval development, but there was never any indication of shell growth in larvae from species in this genus. Cyathermia naticoides (Family Neomphalidea) had a maximum oocyte size of 120 μm and a fecundity of <400 oocytes per individual. Rhynchopelta concentrica (Family Peltospiridae) had a maximum oocyte size of 184 μm and a fecundity <600, whereas in Eulepetopsis vitrea (Family Neolepetopsidae) maximum oocyte size was 232 μm with a fecundity of <200 oocytes per individual. In none of these three species was there any indication of episodicity in oocyte production. From our observations we support the paradigm that there is no reproductive pattern typical of vent systems but is more related to species' phylogeny.
  • Article
    A survey of Dinophysis spp. and their potential to cause diarrhetic shellfish poisoning in coastal waters of the United States
    (Wiley, 2023-03) Ayache, Nour ; Bill, Brian D. ; Brosnahan, Michael L. ; Campbell, Lisa ; Deeds, Jonathan R. ; Fiorendino, James M. ; Gobler, Christopher J. ; Handy, Sara M. ; Harrington, Neil ; Kulis, David M. ; McCarron, Pearse ; Miles, Christopher O. ; Moore, Stephanie K. ; Nagai, Satoshi ; Trainer, Vera L. ; Wolny, Jennifer L. ; Young, Craig S. ; Smith, Juliette L.
    Multiple species of the genus Dinophysis produce diarrhetic shellfish toxins (okadaic acid and Dinophysis toxins, OA/DTXs analogs) and/or pectenotoxins (PTXs). Only since 2008 have DSP events (illnesses and/or shellfish harvesting closures) become recognized as a threat to human health in the United States. This study characterized 20 strains representing five species of Dinophysis spp. isolated from three US coastal regions that have experienced DSP events: the Northeast/Mid‐Atlantic, the Gulf of Mexico, and the Pacific Northwest. Using a combination of morphometric and DNA‐based evidence, seven Northeast/Mid‐Atlantic isolates and four Pacific Northwest isolates were classified as D. acuminata, a total of four isolates from two coasts were classified as D. norvegica, two isolates from the Pacific Northwest coast were identified as D. fortii, and three isolates from the Gulf of Mexico were identified as D. ovum and D. caudata. Toxin profiles of D. acuminata and D. norvegica varied by their geographical origin within the United States. Cross‐regional comparison of toxin profiles was not possible with the other three species; however, within each region, distinct species‐conserved profiles for isolates of D. fortii, D. ovum, and D. caudata were observed. Historical and recent data from various State and Tribal monitoring programs were compiled and compared, including maximum recorded cell abundances of Dinophysis spp., maximum concentrations of OA/DTXs recorded in commercial shellfish species, and durations of harvesting closures, to provide perspective regarding potential for DSP impacts to regional public health and shellfish industry.