Lee Wu-Jung

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Now showing 1 - 6 of 6
  • Article
    Macroscopic observations of diel fish movements around a shallow water artificial reef using a mid-frequency horizontal-looking sonar
    (Acoustical Society of America, 2018-09-18) Lee, Wu-Jung ; Tang, Dajun ; Stanton, Timothy K. ; Thorsos, Eric I.
    The twilight feeding migration of fish around a shallow water artificial reef (a shipwreck) was observed by a horizontal-looking, mid-frequency sonar. The sonar operated at frequencies between 1.8 and 3.6 kHz and consisted of a co-located source and horizontal line array deployed at 4 km from the reef. The experiment was conducted in a well-mixed shallow water waveguide which is conducive to characterizing fish aggregations at these distances. Large aggregations of fish were repeatedly seen to emerge rapidly from the shipwreck at dusk, disperse into the surrounding area during the night, and quickly converge back to the shipwreck at dawn. This is a rare, macroscopic observation of an ecologically-important reef fish behavior, delivered at the level of aggregations, instead of individual fish tracks that have been documented previously. The significance of this observation on sonar performance associated with target detection in the presence of fish clutter is discussed based on analyses of echo intensity and statistics. Building on previous studies of long-range fish echoes, this study further substantiates the unique utility of such sonar systems as an ecosystem monitoring tool, and illustrates the importance of considering the impact of the presence of fish on sonar applications.
  • Article
    The acoustic field on the forehead of echolocating Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus)
    (Acoustical Society of America, 2010-09) Au, Whitlow W. L. ; Houser, Dorian S. ; Finneran, James J. ; Lee, Wu-Jung ; Talmadge, Lois A. ; Moore, Patrick W.
    Arrays of up to six broadband suction cup hydrophones were placed on the forehead of two bottlenose dolphins to determine the location where the beam axis emerges and to examine how signals in the acoustic near-field relate to signals in the far-field. Four different array geometries were used; a linear one with hydrophones arranged along the midline of the forehead, and two around the front of the melon at 1.4 and 4.2 cm above the rostrum insertion, and one across the melon in certain locations not measured by other configurations. The beam axis was found to be close to the midline of the melon, approximately 5.4 cm above the rostrum insert for both animals. The signal path coincided with the low-density, low-velocity core of the melon; however, the data suggest that the signals are focused mainly by the air sacs. Slight asymmetry in the signals were found with higher amplitudes on the right side of the forehead. Although the signal waveform measured on the melon appeared distorted, when they are mathematically summed in the far-field, taking into account the relative time of arrival of the signals, the resultant waveform matched that measured by the hydrophone located at 1 m.
  • Article
    Echo statistics associated with discrete scatterers: A tutorial on physics-based methods
    (Acoustical Society of America, 2018-12-06) Stanton, Timothy K. ; Lee, Wu-Jung ; Baik, Kyungmin
    When a beam emitted from an active monostatic sensor system sweeps across a volume, the echoes from scatterers present will fluctuate from ping to ping due to various interference phenomena and statistical processes. Observations of these fluctuations can be used, in combination with models, to infer properties of the scatterers such as numerical density. Modeling the fluctuations can also help predict system performance and associated uncertainties in expected echoes. This tutorial focuses on “physics-based statistics,” which is a predictive form of modeling the fluctuations. The modeling is based principally on the physics of the scattering by individual scatterers, addition of echoes from randomized multiple scatterers, system effects involving the beampattern and signal type, and signal theory including matched filter processing. Some consideration is also given to environment-specific effects such as the presence of boundaries and heterogeneities in the medium. Although the modeling was inspired by applications of sonar in the field of underwater acoustics, the material is presented in a general form, and involving only scalar fields. Therefore, it is broadly applicable to other areas such as medical ultrasound, non-destructive acoustic testing, in-air acoustics, as well as radar and lasers.
  • Article
    Beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas) acoustic foraging behavior and applications for long term monitoring
    (Public Library of Science, 2021-11-30) Castellote, Manuel ; Mooney, T. Aran ; Andrews, Russel ; DeRuiter, Stacy L. ; Lee, Wu-Jung ; Ferguson, Megan ; Wade, Paul R.
    Cook Inlet, Alaska, is home to an endangered and declining population of 279 belugas (Delphinapterus leucas). Recovery efforts highlight a paucity of basic ecological knowledge, impeding the correct assessment of threats and the development of recovery actions. In particular, information on diet and foraging habitat is very limited for this population. Passive acoustic monitoring has proven to be an efficient approach to monitor beluga distribution and seasonal occurrence. Identifying acoustic foraging behavior could help address the current gap in information on diet and foraging habitat. To address this conservation challenge, eight belugas from a comparative, healthy population in Bristol Bay, Alaska, were instrumented with a multi-sensor tag (DTAG), a satellite tag, and a stomach temperature transmitter in August 2014 and May 2016. DTAG deployments provided 129.6 hours of data including foraging and social behavioral states. A total of 68 echolocation click trains ending in terminal buzzes were identified during successful prey chasing and capture, as well as during social interactions. Of these, 37 click trains were successfully processed to measure inter-click intervals (ICI) and ICI trend in their buzzing section. Terminal buzzes with short ICI (minimum ICI <8.98 ms) and consistently decreasing ICI trend (ICI increment range <1.49 ms) were exclusively associated with feeding behavior. This dual metric was applied to acoustic data from one acoustic mooring within the Cook Inlet beluga critical habitat as an example of the application of detecting feeding in long-term passive acoustic monitoring data. This approach allowed description of the relationship between beluga presence, feeding occurrence, and the timing of spawning runs by different species of anadromous fish. Results reflected a clear preference for the Susitna River delta during eulachon (Thaleichthys pacificus), Chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), pink (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha), and coho (Oncorhynchus kisutch) salmon spawning run periods, with increased feeding occurrence at the peak of the Chinook and pink salmon runs.
  • Thesis
    Broadband and statistical characterization of echoes from random scatterers : application to acoustic scattering by marine organisms
    (Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 2013-02) Lee, Wu-Jung
    The interpretation of echoes collected by active remote-sensing systems, such as sonar and radar, is often ambiguous due to the complexities in the scattering processes involving the scatterers, the environment, and the sensing system. This thesis addresses this challenge using a combination of laboratory and fi eld experiments, theoretical modeling, and numerical simulations in the context of acoustic scattering by marine organisms. The unifying themes of the thesis are 1) quantitative characterization of the spectral, temporal, and statistical features derived from echoes collected using both broadband and narrowband signals, and 2) the interpretation of echoes by establishing explicit links between echo features and the sources of scattering through physics principles. This physics-based approach is distinct from the subjective descriptions and empirical methods employed in most conventional fisheries acoustic studies. The fi rst part focuses on understanding the dominant backscattering mechanisms of live squid as a function of orientation. The study provides the first broadband backscattering laboratory data set from live squid at all angles of orientation, and conclusively con firms the fluidlike, weakly-scattering material properties of squid through a series of detailed comparisons between data and predictions given by models derived based on the distorted-wave Born approximation. In the second part, an exact analytical narrowband model and a numerical broadband model are developed based on physics principles to describe the probability density function of the amplitudes of echo envelopes (echo pdf) of arbitrary aggregations of scatterers. The narrowband echo pdf model signi cantly outperforms the conventional mixture models in analyzing simulated mixed assemblages. When applied to analyze fish echoes collected in the ocean, the numerical density of sh estimated using the broadband echo pdf model is comparable to the density estimated using echo integration methods. These results demonstrate the power of the physics-based approach and give a rst-order assessment of the performance of echo statistics methods in echo interpretation. The new data, models, and approaches provided here are important for advancing the eld of active acoustic observation of the ocean.
  • Article
    Orientation dependence of broadband acoustic backscattering from live squid
    (Acoustical Society of America, 2012-06) Lee, Wu-Jung ; Lavery, Andone C. ; Stanton, Timothy K.
    A controlled laboratory experiment of broadband acoustic backscattering from live squid (Loligo pealeii) was conducted using linear chirp signals (60–103 kHz) with data collected over the full 360° of orientation in the lateral plane, in <1° increments. The acoustic measurements were compared with an analytical prolate spheroid model and a three-dimensional numerical model with randomized squid shape, both based on the distorted-wave Born approximation formulation. The data were consistent with the hypothesized fluid-like scattering properties of squid. The contributions from the front and back interfaces of the squid were found to dominate the scattering at normal incidence, while the arms had a significant effect at other angles. The three-dimensional numerical model predictions out-performed the prolate spheroid model over a wide range of orientations. The predictions were found to be sensitive to the shape parameters, including the arms and the fins. Accurate predictions require setting these shape parameters to best describe the most probable squid shape for different applications. The understanding developed here serves as a basis for the accurate interpretation of in situ acoustic scattering measurements of squid.