Schmidt Henrik

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Now showing 1 - 7 of 7
  • Article
    Constructing a distributed AUV network for underwater plume-tracking operations
    (Hindawi, 2012) Petillo, Stephanie M. ; Schmidt, Henrik ; Balasuriya, Arjuna
    In recent years, there has been significant concern about the impacts of offshore oil spill plumes and harmful algal blooms on the coastal ocean environment and biology, as well as on the human populations adjacent to these coastal regions. Thus, it has become increasingly important to determine the 3D extent of these ocean features (“plumes”) and how they evolve over time. The ocean environment is largely inaccessible to sensing directly by humans, motivating the need for robots to intelligently sense the ocean for us. In this paper, we propose the use of an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) network to track and predict plume shape and motion, discussing solutions to the challenges of spatiotemporal data aliasing (coverage versus resolution), underwater communication, AUV autonomy, data fusion, and coordination of multiple AUVs. A plume simulation is also developed here as the first step toward implementing behaviors for autonomous, adaptive plume tracking with AUVs, modeling a plume as a sum of Fourier orders and examining the resulting errors. This is then extended to include plume forecasting based on time variations, and future improvements and implementation are discussed.
  • Article
    An acoustic remote sensing method for high-precision propeller rotation and speed estimation of unmanned underwater vehicles
    (Acoustical Society of America, 2020-12-23) Railey, Kristen E. ; DiBiaso, Dino ; Schmidt, Henrik
    Understanding the dominant sources of acoustic noise in unmanned underwater vehicles (UUVs) is important for passively tracking these platforms and for designing quieter propulsion systems. This work describes how the vehicle's propeller rotation can be passively measured by the unique high frequency acoustic signature of a brushless DC motor propulsion system and compares this method to Detection of Envelope Modulation on Noise (DEMON) measurements. First, causes of high frequency tones were determined through direct measurements of two micro-UUVs and an isolated thruster at a range of speeds. From this analysis, common and dominant features of noise were established: strong tones at the motor's pulse-width modulated frequency and its second harmonic, with sideband spacings at the propeller rotation frequency multiplied by the poles of the motor. In shallow water field experiments, measuring motor noise was a superior method to the DEMON algorithm for estimating UUV speed. In negligible currents, and when the UUV turn-per-knot ratio was known, measuring motor noise produced speed predictions within the error range of the vehicle's inertial navigation system's reported speed. These findings are applicable to other vehicles that rely on brushless DC motors and can be easily integrated into passive acoustic systems for target motion analysis.
  • Article
    Three-dimensional coupled mode analysis of internal-wave acoustic ducts
    (Acoustical Society of America, 2014-05) Shmelev, Alexey A. ; Lynch, James F. ; Lin, Ying-Tsong ; Schmidt, Henrik
    A fully three-dimensional coupled mode approach is used in this paper to describe the physics of low frequency acoustic signals propagating through a train of internal waves at an arbitrary azimuth. A three layer model of the shallow water waveguide is employed for studying the properties of normal modes and their coupled interaction due to the presence of nonlinear internal waves. Using a robust wave number integration technique for Fourier transform computation and a direct global matrix approach, an accurate three-dimensional coupled mode full field solution is obtained for the tonal signal propagation through straight and parallel internal waves. This approach provides accurate results for arbitrary azimuth and includes the effects of backscattering. This enables one to provide an azimuthal analysis of acoustic propagation and separate the effects of mode coupled transparent resonance, horizontal reflection and refraction, the horizontal Lloyd's mirror, horizontal ducting and anti-ducting, and horizontal tunneling and secondary ducting.
  • Article
    Synchronous-clock range-angle relative acoustic navigation: a unified approach to multi-AUV localization, command, control, and coordination
    (Wiley, 2022-05-10) Rypkema, Nicholas R. ; Schmidt, Henrik ; Fischell, Erin M.
    This paper presents a scalable acoustic navigation approach for the unified command, control, and coordination of multiple autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs). Existing multi-AUV operations typically achieve coordination manually by programming individual vehicles on the surface via radio communications, which becomes impractical with large vehicle numbers; or they require bi-directional intervehicle acoustic communications to achieve limited coordination when submerged, with limited scalability due to the physical properties of the acoustic channel. Our approach utilizes a single, periodically broadcasting beacon acting as a navigation reference for the group of AUVs, each of which carries a chip-scale atomic clock and fixed ultrashort baseline array of acoustic receivers. One-way travel-time from synchronized clocks and time-delays between signals received by each array element allow any number of vehicles within receive distance to determine range, angle, and thus determine their relative position to the beacon. The operator can command different vehicle behaviors by selecting between broadcast signals from a predetermined set, while coordination between AUVs is achieved without intervehicle communication by defining individual vehicle behaviors within the context of the group. Vehicle behaviors are designed within a beacon-centric moving frame of reference, allowing the operator to control the absolute position of the AUV group by repositioning the navigation beacon to survey the area of interest. Multiple deployments with a fleet of three miniature, low-cost SandShark AUVs performing closed-loop acoustic navigation in real-time provide experimental results validated against a secondary long-baseline positioning system, demonstrating the capabilities and robustness of our approach with real-world data.
  • Article
    Memory-efficient approximate three-dimensional beamforming
    (Acoustical Society of America, 2020-12-07) Rypkema, Nicholas R. ; Fischell, Erin M. ; Schmidt, Henrik
    Localization of acoustic sources using a sensor array is typically performed by estimating direction-of-arrival (DOA) via beamforming of the signals recorded by all elements. Software-based conventional beamforming (CBF) forces a trade-off between memory usage and direction resolution, since time delays associated with a set of directions over which the beamformer is steered must be pre-computed and stored, limiting the number of look directions to available platform memory. This paper describes a DOA localization method that is memory-efficient for three-dimensional (3D) beamforming applications. Its key lies in reducing 3D look directions [described by azimuth/inclination angles (ϕ, θ) when considering the array as a whole] to a single variable (a conical angle, ζ) by treating the array as a collection of sensor pairs. This insight reduces the set of look directions from two dimensions to one, enabling computational and memory efficiency improvements and thus allowing direction resolution to be increased. This method is described and compared to CBF, with comparisons provided for accuracy, computational speedup, and memory usage. As this method involves the incoherent summation of sensor pair outputs, gain is limited, restricting its use to localization of strong sources—e.g., for real-time acoustic localization on embedded systems, where computation and/or memory are limited.
  • Article
    Multistatic acoustic characterization of seabed targets
    (Acoustical Society of America, 2017-09-25) Fischell, Erin M. ; Schmidt, Henrik
    One application for autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) is detecting and classifying hazardous objects on the seabed. An acoustic approach to this problem has been studied in which an acoustic source insonifies seabed target while receiving AUVs with passive sensing payloads discriminate targets based on features of the three dimensional scattered fields. The OASES-SCATT simulator was used to study how scattering data collected by mobile receivers around targets insonified by mobile sources might be used for sphere and cylinder target characterization in terms of shape, composition, and size. The impact of target geometry on these multistatic scattering fields is explored, and a discrimination approach developed in which the source and receiver circle the target with the same radial speed. The frequency components of the multistatic scattering data at different bistatic angles are used to form models for target characteristics. Data are then classified using these models. Classification accuracies were greater than 98% for shape and composition. Regression for target volume showed potential, with 90% chance of errors less than 15%. The significance of this approach is to make classification using low-cost vehicles plausible from scattering amplitudes and the relative angles between the target, source, and receiver vehicles.
  • Article
    A high‐resolution AUV navigation framework with integrated communication and tracking for under‐ice deployments
    (Wiley, 2022-11-16) Randeni, Supun ; Schneider, Toby ; Bhatt, EeShan C. ; Víquez, Oscar A. ; Schmidt, Henrik
    We developed an environmentally adaptive under‐ice navigation framework that was deployed in the Arctic Beaufort Sea during the United States Navy Ice Exercise in March 2020 (ICEX20). This navigation framework contained two subsystems developed from the ground up: (1) an on‐board hydrodynamic model‐aided navigation (HydroMAN) engine, and (2) an environmentally and acoustically adaptive integrated communication and navigation network (ICNN) that provided acoustic navigation aiding to the former. The HydroMAN synthesized measurements from an inertial navigation system (INS), ice‐tracking Doppler velocity log (DVL), ICNN and pressure sensor into its self‐calibrating vehicle flight dynamic model to compute the navigation solution. The ICNN system, which consisted of four ice buoys outfitted with acoustic modems, trilaterated the vehicle position using the one‐way‐travel‐times (OWTT) of acoustic datagrams transmitted by the autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) and received by the ice buoy network. The ICNN digested salinity and temperature information to provide model‐assisted real‐time OWTT range conversion to deliver accurate acoustic navigation updates to the HydroMAN. To decouple the contributions from the HydroMAN and ICNN subsystems towards a stable navigation solution, this article evaluates them separately: (1) HydroMAN was compared against DVL bottom‐track aided INS during pre‐ICEX20 engineering trials where both systems provided similar accuracy; (2) ICNN was evaluated by conducting a static experiment in the Arctic where the ICNN navigation updates were compared against GPS with ICNN error within low tens of meters. The joint HydroMAN‐ICNN framework was tested during ICEX20, which provided a nondiverging high‐resolution navigation solution—with the majority of error below 15 m—that facilitated a successful AUV recovery through a small ice hole after an 11 km untethered run in the upper and mid‐water column.