Boutin Paul R.
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Technical ReportDeep-sea corehead camera photography and piston coring(Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 1969-03) McCoy, Floyd W. ; von Herzen, Richard P. ; Owen, David M. ; Boutin, Paul R.Cameras were mounted in a newly designed corehead of a piston corer and used to photograph coring operations during 36 stations on CHAIN cruise 75 and 28 stations on ATLANTIS II cruise 42. Through the analysis of these photographs, the deep-water operation of a piston corer during its descent, tripping, impact with the bottom, and ascent has been studied, providing information on the corer's stability, effectiveness in obtaining a bottom sample, and influence on the nearby sea-floor. Accurate determinations of the amount of penetration were possible, allowing comparisons to be made with the more indirect methods of determining penetration and with the length of core recovered. Sediment clouds produced by bottom currents were noticed in many of the bottom photographs. A number of suggestions are made for future piston coring operations. The corer descends with little rotation and swinging. Free-fall and penetration generally take place in less than 5 seconds, with a rotation of 20-60° and an increase of about 6° in vertical deviation. During penetration, the corer disturbs the surrounding sea floor, producing both mounds and depressions around the core barrels. While resting in the bottom, the corer is very stable although some wobbling does occur. Considerable rotation takes place during both pull-out and ascent; frequent sediment discharges from the piston corer occur. No consistent relationship was found between the amount of penetration and the length of core recovered, and thus with the degree of core shortening. Comparisons between piston and pilot cores indicate that the piston cores have been shortened and disturbed relative to the pilot cores, and that as much as a meter of the upper portion of the piston core has been lost. The position of the mud-mark appears to be a reliable indicator of the amount of penetration; estimates by extrapolation of the thermal gradient to the surface are less reliable. The vertical deviation of the corer in the bottom does not influence the amount of penetration. Stratigraphic dips in the recovered cores correspond poorly to this vertical deviation in the bottom.
Technical ReportEvaluation of electromagnetic source for ocean climate acoustic thermometry at Lake Seneca(Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 1993-02) Slavinsky, Mark ; Bogolubov, Boris ; Alelekov, Igor ; Pigalov, Konstantin ; Spiesberger, John L. ; Boutin, Paul R.A compact electromagnetic monopole source, requiring pressure equalization, was evaluated at the Naval Underwater Systems Center at Lake Seneca during July 1992 by scientists from the Institute of Applied Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IAP RAS) and from the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution and other American organizations. The titaium source was developed at the IAP RAS. The source has a mass of 123 kg and a diameter of .54 m. The source cannot be thought of as a single unit; rather the characteristics of the transmitted signal depend on a transmission system consisting of the source, the power amplifier, and a computer. The computer and the amplifier send specially adapted signals to the source to produce the desired acoustic signals. Measurements indicate the acoustic system as a center frequence of 225 Hz, a bandwidth of about 50 Hz, an associated pulse resolution of about 0.02 s, a source level of about 198 dB re 1 μpa @ 1 m, with an efficiency of about 50%. The system has an efficiency of about 67% near 225 Hz, the resonant frequence. The source is suitable for mounting on autonomous ocean moorings for several years as part of a system of monitoring climatic temperature changes over basin scales.