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ArticleThe distribution of methylated sulfur compounds, DMS and DMSP, in Canadian subarctic and Arctic marine waters during summer 2015(Copernicus Publications on behalf of the European Geosciences Union, 2018-04-23) Jarníková, Tereza ; Dacey, John W. H. ; Lizotte, Martine ; Levasseur, Maurice ; Tortell, Philippe D.We present seawater concentrations of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) measured across a transect from the Labrador Sea to the Canadian Arctic Archipelago during summer 2015. Using an automated ship-board gas chromatography system and a membrane-inlet mass spectrometer, we measured a wide range of DMS (∼ 1 to 18 nM) and DMSP (∼ 1 to 150 nM) concentrations. The highest DMS and DMSP concentrations occurred in a localized region of Baffin Bay, where surface waters were characterized by high chlorophyll a (chl a) fluorescence, indicative of elevated phytoplankton biomass. Across the full sampling transect, there were only weak relationships between DMS(P), chl a fluorescence and other measured variables, including positive relationships between DMSP : chl a ratios and several taxonomic marker pigments, and elevated DMS(P) concentrations in partially ice-covered areas. Our high spatial resolution measurements allowed us to examine DMS variability over small scales (< 1 km), documenting strong DMS concentration gradients across surface hydrographic frontal features. Our new observations fill in an important observational gap in the Arctic Ocean and provide additional information on sea–air DMS fluxes from this ocean region. In addition, this study constitutes a significant contribution to the existing Arctic DMS(P) dataset and provides a baseline for future measurements in the region.
ArticleSynthesis of iron fertilization experiments : from the Iron Age in the Age of Enlightenment(American Geophysical Union, 2005-09-28) Baar, Hein J. W. de ; Boyd, Philip W. ; Coale, Kenneth H. ; Landry, Michael R. ; Tsuda, Atsushi ; Assmy, Philipp ; Bakker, Dorothee C. E. ; Bozec, Yann ; Barber, Richard T. ; Brzezinski, Mark A. ; Buesseler, Ken O. ; Boye, Marie ; Croot, Peter L. ; Gervais, Frank ; Gorbunov, Maxim Y. ; Harrison, Paul J. ; Hiscock, William T. ; Laan, Patrick ; Lancelot, Christiane ; Law, Cliff S. ; Levasseur, Maurice ; Marchetti, Adrian ; Millero, Frank J. ; Nishioka, Jun ; Nojiri, Yukihiro ; van Oijen, Tim ; Riebesell, Ulf ; Rijkenberg, Micha J. A. ; Saito, Hiroaki ; Takeda, Shigenobu ; Timmermans, Klaas R. ; Veldhuis, Marcel J. W. ; Waite, Anya M. ; Wong, Chi-ShingComparison of eight iron experiments shows that maximum Chl a, the maximum DIC removal, and the overall DIC/Fe efficiency all scale inversely with depth of the wind mixed layer (WML) defining the light environment. Moreover, lateral patch dilution, sea surface irradiance, temperature, and grazing play additional roles. The Southern Ocean experiments were most influenced by very deep WMLs. In contrast, light conditions were most favorable during SEEDS and SERIES as well as during IronEx-2. The two extreme experiments, EisenEx and SEEDS, can be linked via EisenEx bottle incubations with shallower simulated WML depth. Large diatoms always benefit the most from Fe addition, where a remarkably small group of thriving diatom species is dominated by universal response of Pseudo-nitzschia spp. Significant response of these moderate (10–30 μm), medium (30–60 μm), and large (>60 μm) diatoms is consistent with growth physiology determined for single species in natural seawater. The minimum level of “dissolved” Fe (filtrate < 0.2 μm) maintained during an experiment determines the dominant diatom size class. However, this is further complicated by continuous transfer of original truly dissolved reduced Fe(II) into the colloidal pool, which may constitute some 75% of the “dissolved” pool. Depth integration of carbon inventory changes partly compensates the adverse effects of a deep WML due to its greater integration depths, decreasing the differences in responses between the eight experiments. About half of depth-integrated overall primary productivity is reflected in a decrease of DIC. The overall C/Fe efficiency of DIC uptake is DIC/Fe ∼ 5600 for all eight experiments. The increase of particulate organic carbon is about a quarter of the primary production, suggesting food web losses for the other three quarters. Replenishment of DIC by air/sea exchange tends to be a minor few percent of primary CO2 fixation but will continue well after observations have stopped. Export of carbon into deeper waters is difficult to assess and is until now firmly proven and quite modest in only two experiments.
ArticleBehaviour of the ocean DMS(P) pools in the Sargasso Sea viewed in a coupled physical-biogeochemical ocean model(National Research Council Canada, 2004-06-23) Le Clainche, Yvonnick ; Levasseur, Maurice ; Vezina, Alain ; Dacey, John W. H. ; Saucier, Francois J.The dimethylsulfide (DMS) production model NODEM (Northern Oceans DMS Emission Model) was coupled with the water column ocean model GOTM (General Ocean Turbulence Model) that includes a two-equation k&150;ε turbulence scheme. This coupled physical-biogeochemical ocean model represents a significant improvement over the previous uncoupled version of NODEM that was driven by a diagnostic vertical mixing scheme. Using the same set of biogeochemical parameters, the coupled model is used to simulate the annual cycles of 1992 and 1993 at Hydrostation S in the Sargasso Sea. The better reproduction of the turbulent mixing environment corrects some deficiencies in nitrogen cycling, especially in the seasonal evolution of the nutrient concentrations. Hence, the coupled model captures the late-winter chlorophyll- and DMS(P)-rich blooms. It is also more adept at reproducing the vertical distribution of chlorophyll and DMS(P) in summer. Moreover, the DMS pool becomes less dependent on parameters controlling the nitrogen cycle and relatively more sensitive to parameters related to the sulfur cycle. Finally, the coupled model reproduces some of the observed differences in DMS(P) pools between 1992 and 1993, the latter being an independent data set not used in calibrating the initial version of NODEM.