McLaughlin Fiona A.

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Fiona A.

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Now showing 1 - 9 of 9
  • Article
    Pacific Ocean inflow : influence on catastrophic reduction of sea ice cover in the Arctic Ocean
    (American Geophysical Union, 2006-04-21) Shimada, Koji ; Kamoshida, Takashi ; Itoh, Motoyo ; Nishino, Shigeto ; Carmack, Eddy C. ; McLaughlin, Fiona A. ; Zimmermann, Sarah ; Proshutinsky, Andrey
    The spatial pattern of recent ice reduction in the Arctic Ocean is similar to the distribution of warm Pacific Summer Water (PSW) that interflows the upper portion of halocline in the southern Canada Basin. Increases in PSW temperature in the basin are also well-correlated with the onset of sea-ice reduction that began in the late 1990s. However, increases in PSW temperature in the basin do not correlate with the temperature of upstream source water in the northeastern Bering Sea, suggesting that there is another mechanism which controls these concurrent changes in ice cover and upper ocean temperature. We propose a feedback mechanism whereby the delayed sea-ice formation in early winter, which began in 1997/1998, reduced internal ice stresses and thus allowed a more efficient coupling of anticyclonic wind forcing to the upper ocean. This, in turn, increased the flux of warm PSW into the basin and caused the catastrophic changes.
  • Article
    Penetration of the 1990s warm temperature anomaly of Atlantic Water in the Canada Basin
    (American Geophysical Union, 2004-10-16) Shimada, Koji ; McLaughlin, Fiona A. ; Carmack, Eddy C. ; Proshutinsky, Andrey ; Nishino, Shigeto ; Itoh, Motoyo
    Penetration of the 1990s warm temperature anomaly (WTA) of the Fram Strait branch of Atlantic Water (FSBW) in the Canada Basin is described using available temperature, salinity, and velocity data. The core temperatures of FSBW show distinct pathways. Over the Chukchi Borderland advective velocities of the FSBW are well-correlated with bottom topography. The resulting multifarious pathways over the Chukchi Borderland act to modulate and substantially increase the time scale of WTA spreading and advancement. Further downstream two WTA tongues are observed. One tongue followed the Beaufort Slope and, along this pathway, the core temperatures of FSBW decreased rapidly. The depth integrated value of heat content remained near constant however, suggesting enhanced vertical mixing. The second tongue debouched from the northern tip of the Northwind Ridge and spread eastward into the deep Canada Basin, suggesting a complex recirculation structure within the Beaufort Gyre.
  • Article
    Deterioration of perennial sea ice in the Beaufort Gyre from 2003 to 2012 and its impact on the oceanic freshwater cycle
    (John Wiley & Sons, 2014-02-22) Krishfield, Richard A. ; Proshutinsky, Andrey ; Tateyama, Kazutaka ; Williams, William J. ; Carmack, Eddy C. ; McLaughlin, Fiona A. ; Timmermans, Mary-Louise
    Time series of ice draft from 2003 to 2012 from moored sonar data are used to investigate variability and describe the reduction of the perennial sea ice cover in the Beaufort Gyre (BG), culminating in the extreme minimum in 2012. Negative trends in median ice drafts and most ice fractions are observed, while open water and thinnest ice fractions (<0.3 m) have increased, attesting to the ablation or removal of the older sea ice from the BG over the 9 year period. Monthly anomalies indicate a shift occurred toward thinner ice after 2007, in which the thicker ice evident at the northern stations was reduced. Differences in the ice characteristics between all of the stations also diminished, so that the ice cover throughout the region became statistically homogenous. The moored data are used in a relationship with satellite radiometer data to estimate ice volume changes throughout the BG. Summer solid fresh water content decreased drastically in consecutive years from 730 km3 in 2006 to 570 km3 in 2007, and to 240 km3 in 2008. After a short rebound, solid fresh water fell below 220 km3 in 2012. Meanwhile, hydrographic data indicate that liquid fresh water in the BG in summer increased 5410 km3 from 2003 to 2010 and decreased at least 210 km3 by 2012. The reduction of both solid and liquid fresh water components indicates a net export of approximately 320 km3 of fresh water from the region occurred between 2010 and 2012, suggesting that the anticyclonic atmosphere-ocean circulation has weakened.
  • Article
    The rapid response of the Canada Basin to climate forcing : from bellwether to alarm bells
    (Oceanography Society, 2011-09) McLaughlin, Fiona A. ; Carmack, Eddy C. ; Proshutinsky, Andrey ; Krishfield, Richard A. ; Guay, Christopher K. ; Yamamoto-Kawai, Michiyo ; Jackson, Jennifer M. ; Williams, William J.
    Sea ice extent in the Arctic Ocean diminished significantly during the first decade of the 2000s, most particularly in the Canada Basin where the loss of both multiyear and first-year ice was greater than in the other three subbasins. Using data collected during basin-wide surveys conducted from 2003–2010 together with data collected during the 1990s and 2000s at one station in the southern Canada Basin, we investigate the response of the Canada Basin water column to this significant decrease in ice cover. Changes were evident from the surface down to the Atlantic layer: some changes were the result of Beaufort Gyre forcing on regional processes, others were the result of Arctic Ocean atmospheric forcing on a hemispheric scale and large-scale advection. These changes have troubling consequences for the ecosystem.
  • Article
    Carbon dynamics in the western Arctic Ocean : insights from full-depth carbon isotope profiles of DIC, DOC, and POC
    (Copernicus Publications on behalf of the European Geosciences Union, 2012-03-28) Griffith, David R. ; McNichol, Ann P. ; Xu, Li ; McLaughlin, Fiona A. ; Macdonald, Robie W. ; Brown, Kristina A. ; Eglinton, Timothy I.
    Arctic warming is projected to continue throughout the coming century. Yet, our currently limited understanding of the Arctic Ocean carbon cycle hinders our ability to predict how changing conditions will affect local Arctic ecosystems, regional carbon budgets, and global climate. We present here the first set of concurrent, full-depth, dual-isotope profiles for dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and suspended particulate organic carbon (POCsusp) at two sites in the Canada Basin of the Arctic Ocean. The carbon isotope composition of sinking and suspended POC in the Arctic contrasts strongly with open ocean Atlantic and Pacific sites, pointing to a combination of inputs to Arctic POCsusp at depth, including surface-derived organic carbon (OC), sorbed/advected OC, and OC derived from in situ DIC fixation. The latter process appears to be particularly important at intermediate depths, where mass balance calculations suggest that OC derived from in situ DIC fixation contributes up to 22% of POCsusp. As in other oceans, surface-derived OC is still a dominant source to Arctic POCsusp. Yet, we suggest that significantly smaller vertical POC fluxes in the Canada Basin make it possible to see evidence of DIC fixation in the POCsusp pool even at the bulk isotope level.
  • Article
    Beaufort Gyre freshwater reservoir : state and variability from observations
    (American Geophysical Union, 2009-06-24) Proshutinsky, Andrey ; Krishfield, Richard A. ; Timmermans, Mary-Louise ; Toole, John M. ; Carmack, Eddy C. ; McLaughlin, Fiona A. ; Williams, William J. ; Zimmermann, Sarah ; Itoh, Motoyo ; Shimada, Koji
    We investigate basin-scale mechanisms regulating anomalies in freshwater content (FWC) in the Beaufort Gyre (BG) of the Arctic Ocean using historical observations and data collected in 2003–2007. Specifically, the mean annual cycle and interannual and decadal FWC variability are explored. The major cause of the large FWC in the BG is the process of Ekman pumping (EP) due to the Arctic High anticyclonic circulation centered in the BG. The mean seasonal cycle of liquid FWC is a result of interplay between the mechanical (EP) and thermal (ice transformations) factors and has two peaks. One peak occurs around June–July when the sea ice thickness reaches its minimum (maximum ice melt). The second maximum is observed in November–January when wind curl is strongest (maximum EP) and the salt input from the growing ice has not yet reached its maximum. Interannual changes in FWC during 2003–2007 are characterized by a strong positive trend in the region varying by location with a maximum of approximately 170 cm a−1 in the center of EP influenced region. Decadal FWC variability in the period 1950–2000 is dominated by a significant change in the 1990s forced by an atmospheric circulation regime change. The center of maximum FWC shifted to the southeast and appeared to contract in area relative to the pre-1990s climatology. In spite of the areal reduction, the spatially integrated FWC increased by over 1000 km3 relative to climatology.
  • Article
    Halocline structure in the Canada Basin of the Arctic Ocean
    (American Geophysical Union, 2005-02-05) Shimada, Koji ; Itoh, Motoyo ; Nishino, Shigeto ; McLaughlin, Fiona A. ; Carmack, Eddy C. ; Proshutinsky, Andrey
    We examine the varieties and spatial distributions of Pacific and Eastern Arctic origin halocline waters in the Canada Basin using 2002–2003 hydrographic data. The halocline structure in the Canada Basin is different from the Eastern Arctic halocline because it includes fresher Pacific Winter Waters that form a “cold halostad” which lies above the Eastern Arctic origin lower halocline waters. The structure of the halostad in the Canada Basin, however, is not spatially uniform, and depends on the pathway and history of the source water. Pacific Winter Water entering through the Bering Strait becomes salty due to sea ice formation and this, in turn, is dependent on the occurrence and distribution of polynyas. In particular, saline water from the eastern Chukchi Sea forms thick halostad and causes depression of the isohalines in the southern Canada Basin. This depression influences thermohaline structure of the oceanic Beaufort Gyre.
  • Article
    Sources of dissolved inorganic carbon to the Canada Basin halocline : a multitracer study
    (John Wiley & Sons, 2016-05-04) Brown, Kristina A. ; McLaughlin, Fiona A. ; Tortell, Philippe D. ; Yamamoto-Kawai, Michiyo ; Francois, Roger
    We examine the dissolved inorganic carbon maximum in the Canada Basin halocline using a suite of geochemical tracers to gain insight into the factors that contribute to the persistence of this feature. Hydrographic and geochemical samples were collected in the upper 500 m of the southwestern Canada Basin water column in the summer of 2008 and fall of 2009. These observations were used to identify conservative and nonconservative processes that contribute dissolved inorganic carbon to halocline source waters, including shelf sediment organic matter remineralization, air-sea gas exchange, and sea-ice brine export. Our results indicate that the remineralization of organic matter that occurs along the Bering and Chukchi Sea shelves is the overwhelming contributor of dissolved inorganic carbon to Pacific Winter Water that occupies the middle halocline in the southwestern Canada Basin. Nonconservative contributions from air-sea exchange and sea-ice brine are not significant. The broad salinity range associated with the DIC maximum, compared to the narrow salinity range of the nutrient maximum, is due to mixing between Pacific and Atlantic water and not abiotic addition of DIC.
  • Article
    Temporal and spatial variability of particle transport in the deep Arctic Canada Basin
    (John Wiley & Sons, 2015-04-11) Hwang, Jeomshik ; Kim, Minkyoung ; Manganini, Steven J. ; McIntyre, Cameron P. ; Haghipour, Negar ; Park, Jong Jin ; Krishfield, Richard A. ; Macdonald, Robie W. ; McLaughlin, Fiona A. ; Eglinton, Timothy I.
    To better understand the current carbon cycle and potentially detect its change in the rapidly changing Arctic Ocean, we examined sinking particles collected quasi-continuously over a period of 7 years (2004–2011) by bottom-tethered sediment trap moorings in the central Canada Basin. Total mass flux was very low (<100 mg m−2 d−1) at all sites and was temporally decoupled from the cycle of primary production in surface waters. Extremely low radiocarbon contents of particulate organic carbon and high aluminum contents in sinking particles reveal high contributions of resuspended sediment to total sinking particle flux in the deep Canada Basin. Station A (75°N, 150°W) in the southwest quadrant of the Canada Basin is most strongly influenced while Station C (77°N, 140°W) in the northeast quadrant is least influenced by lateral particle supply based on radiocarbon content and Al concentration. The results at Station A, where three sediment traps were deployed at different depths, imply that the most likely mode of lateral particle transport was as thick clouds of enhanced particle concentration extending well above the seafloor. At present, only 1%–2% of the low levels of new production in Canada Basin surface waters reaches the interior basin. Lateral POC supply therefore appears to be the major source of organic matter to the interior basin. However, ongoing changes to surface ocean boundary conditions may influence both lateral and vertical supply of particulate material to the deep Canada Basin.