Liao Yang

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Last Name
Liao
First Name
Yang
ORCID
0000-0002-8201-4152

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Now showing 1 - 11 of 11
  • Article
    The mechanical response of a magma chamber with poroviscoelastic crystal mush
    (American Geophysical Union, 2021-01-28) Liao, Yang ; Soule, S. Adam ; Jones, Meghan R. ; Le Mével, Hélène
    Improved understanding of the impact of crystal mush rheology on the response of magma chambers to magmatic events is critical for better understanding crustal igneous systems with abundant crystals. In this study, we extend an earlier model by Liao et al. (2018); https://doi.org/10.1029/2018jb015985 which considers the mechanical response of a magma chamber with poroelastic crystal mush, by including poroviscoelastic rheology of crystal mush. We find that the coexistence of the two mechanisms of poroelastic diffusion and viscoelastic relaxation causes the magma chamber to react to a magma injection event with more complex time-dependent behaviors. Specifically, we find that the system’s short-term evolution is dominated by the poroelastic diffusion process, while its long-term evolution is dominated by the viscoelastic relaxation process. We identify two post-injection timescales that represent these two stages and examine their relation to the material properties of the system. We find that better constraints on the poroelastic diffusion time are more important for the potential interpretation of surface deformation using the model.
  • Article
    The effects of degassing on magmatic gas waves and long period eruptive precursors at silicic volcanoes
    (American Geophysical Union, 2020-09-22) Jordan, Jacob S. ; Bercovici, David ; Liao, Yang ; Michaut, Chloé
    Cyclical ground deformation, associated seismicity, and elevated degassing are important precursors to explosive eruptions at silicic volcanoes. Regular intervals for elevated activity (6–30 hr) have been observed at volcanoes such as Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines and Soufrière Hills in Montserrat. Here, we explore a hypothesis originally proposed by Michaut et al. (2013, https://doi.org/10.1038/ngeo1928) where porosity waves containing magmatic gas are responsible for the observed periodic behavior. We use two‐phase theory to construct a model where volatile‐rich, bubbly, viscous magma rises and decompresses. We conduct numerical experiments where magma gas waves with various frequencies are imposed at the base of the model volcanic conduit. We numerically verify the results of Michaut et al. (2013, https://doi.org/10.1038/ngeo1928) and then expand on the model by allowing magma viscosity to vary as a function of dissolved water and crystal content. Numerical experiments show that gas exsolution tends to damp the growth of porosity waves during decompression. The instability and resultant growth or decay of gas wave amplitude depends strongly on the gas density gradient and the ratio of the characteristic magma extraction rate to the characteristic magma degassing rate (Damköhler number, Da). We find that slow degassing can lead to a previously unrecognized filtering effect, where low‐frequency gas waves may grow in amplitude. These waves may set the periodicity of the eruptive precursors, such as those observed at Soufrière Hills Volcano. We demonstrate that degassed, crystal‐rich magma is susceptible to the growth of gas waves which may result in the periodic behavior.
  • Article
    The tides of Enceladus’ porous core
    (American Geophysical Union, 2022-05-02) Rovira-Navarro, Marc ; Katz, Richard F. ; Liao, Yang ; van der Wal, Wouter ; Nimmo, Francis
    The inferred density of Enceladus' core, together with evidence of hydrothermal activity within the moon, suggests that the core is porous. Tidal dissipation in an unconsolidated core has been proposed as the main source of Enceladus' geological activity. However, the tidal response of its core has generally been modeled assuming it behaves viscoelastically rather than poroviscoelastically. In this work, we analyze the poroviscoelastic response to better constrain the distribution of tidal dissipation within Enceladus. A poroviscoelastic body has a different tidal response than a viscoelastic one; pressure within the pores alters the stress field and induces a Darcian porous flow. This flow represents an additional pathway for energy dissipation. Using Biot's theory of poroviscoelasticity, we develop a new framework to obtain the tidal response of a spherically symmetric, self-gravitating moon with porous layers and apply it to Enceladus. We show that the boundary conditions at the interface of the core and overlying ocean play a key role in the tidal response. The ocean hinders the development of a large-amplitude Darcian flow, making negligible the Darcian contribution to the dissipation budget. We therefore infer that Enceladus' core can be the source of its geological activity only if it has a low rigidity and a very low viscosity. A future mission to Enceladus could test this hypothesis by measuring the phase lags of tidally induced changes of gravitational potential and surface displacements.
  • Article
    The roles of heat and gas in a mushy magma chamber
    (American Geophysical Union, 2022-06-30) Liao, Yang
    Crustal magmatic systems likely consist of magmatic reservoirs dominated by crystal mush. Recent studies suggest that the physical processes occurring in crystal mush could alter the response of magmatic reservoirs during volcanic unrest. Here, we present a magma chamber deformation model that incorporates two new aspects in crystal mush: heat and exsolved gas. The model is based on earlier studies by Liao et al. (2021, https://doi.org/10.1029/2020JB019395) with additional processes including thermal-mechanical coupling, dependence of material properties on gas content, and temperature evolution following an injection of hotter magma. The post-injection time-dependent evolution of the system can be grouped into three periods, which are dominated by poroelastic diffusion (short term), viscoelastic relaxation (mid term), and thermal equilibration (long term). All three time-regimes are strongly affected by gas distribution, which alters the relative compressibility of the crystal-rich and crystal-poor regions in the chamber. The contribution of thermal evolution emerges during the mid-term evolution. The time-dependent evolution of the system highlights the intrinsic ability of a gas-bearing mushy magma chamber to generate non-monotonic time series of stresses, deformation, and magma transport.
  • Article
    Heat production and tidally driven fluid flow in the permeable core of Enceladus
    (American Geophysical Union, 2020-07-28) Liao, Yang ; Nimmo, Francis ; Neufeld, Jerome A.
    Saturn's moon Enceladus has a global subsurface ocean and a porous rocky core in which water‐rock reactions likely occur; it is thus regarded as a potentially habitable environment. For icy moons like Enceladus, tidal heating is considered to be the main heating mechanism, which has generally been modeled using viscoelastic solid rheologies in existing studies. Here we provide a new framework for calculating tidal heating based on a poroviscoelastic model in which the porous solid and interstitial fluid deformation are coupled. We show that the total heating rate predicted for a poroviscoelastic core is significantly larger than that predicted using a classical viscoelastic model for intermediate to large (>1014 Pa·s) rock viscosities. The periodic deformation of the porous rock matrix is accompanied by interstitial pore fluid flow, and the combined effects through viscous dissipation result in high heat fluxes particularly at the poles. The heat generated in the rock matrix is also enhanced due to the high compressibility of the porous matrix structure. For a sufficiently compressible core and high permeability, the total heat production can exceed 10 GW—a large fraction of the moon's total heat budget—without requiring unrealistically low solid viscosities. The partitioning of heating between rock and fluid constituents depends most sensitively on the viscosity of the rock matrix. As the core of Enceladus warms and weakens over time, pore fluid motion likely shifts from pressure‐driven local oscillations to buoyancy‐driven global hydrothermal convection, and the core transitions from fluid‐dominated to rock‐dominated heating.
  • Article
    Magma wagging and whirling : excitation by gas flux
    (Oxford University Press, 2018-07-28) Liao, Yang ; Bercovici, David
    Gas flux in volcanic conduits is often associated with long-period oscillations known as seismic tremor (Lesage et al.; Nadeau et al.). In this study, we revisit and extend the ‘magma wagging’and ‘whirling’models for seismic tremor, in order to explore the effects of gas flux on the motion of a magma column surrounded by a permeable vesicular annulus (Jellinek & Bercovici; Bercovici et al.; Liao et al.). We find that gas flux flowing through the annulus leads to a Bernoulli effect, which causes waves on the magma column to become unstable and grow. Specifically, the Bernoulli effects are associated with torques and forces acting on the magma column, increasing its angular momentum and energy. As the displacement of the magma column becomes large due to the Bernoulli effect, frictional drag on the conduit wall decelerates the motions of the column, restoring them to small amplitude. Together, the Bernoulli effect and the damping effect contribute to a self-sustained wagging-and-whirling mechanism that help explain the longevity of long-period seismic tremor.
  • Article
    Causes of oceanic crustal thickness oscillations along a 74-M Mid-Atlantic ridge flow line
    (American Geophysical Union, 2019-11-19) Shinevar, William J. ; Mark, Hannah F. ; Clerc, Fiona ; Codillo, Emmanuel A. ; Gong, Jianhua ; Olive, Jean-Arthur ; Brown, Stephanie M. ; Smalls, Paris T. ; Liao, Yang ; Le Roux, Véronique ; Behn, Mark D.
    Gravity, magnetic, and bathymetry data collected along a continuous 1,400‐km‐long spreading‐parallel flow line across the Mid‐Atlantic Ridge indicate significant tectonic and magmatic fluctuations in the formation of oceanic crust over a range of time scales. The transect spans from 28 Ma on the African Plate to 74 Ma on the North American plate, crossing the Mid‐Atlantic Ridge at 35.8°N. Gravity‐derived crustal thicknesses vary from 3–9 km with a standard deviation of 1.0 km. Spectral analysis of bathymetry and residual mantle Bouguer anomaly show a diffuse power at >1 Myr and concurrent peaks at 390, 550, and 950 kyr. Large‐scale (>10 km) mantle thermal and compositional heterogeneities, variations in upper mantle flow, and detachment faulting likely generate the >1 Myr diffuse power. The 550‐ and 950‐kyr peaks may reflect the presence of magma solitons and/or regularly spaced ~7.7 and 13.3 km short‐wavelength mantle compositional heterogeneities. The 390‐kyr spectral peak corresponds to the characteristic spacing of faults along the flow line. Fault spacing also varies over longer periods (>10 Myr), which we interpret as reflecting long‐lived changes in the fraction of tectonically versus magmatically accommodated extensional strain. A newly discovered off‐axis oceanic core complex (Kafka Dome) found at 8 Ma on the African plate further suggests extended time periods of tectonically‐dominated plate separation. Fault spacing negatively correlates with gravity‐derived crustal thickness, supporting a strong link between magma input and fault style at mid‐ocean ridges.
  • Article
    On the mechanical effects of poroelastic crystal mush in classical magma chamber models
    (American Geophysical Union, 2018-09-30) Liao, Yang ; Soule, S. Adam ; Jones, Meghan
    Improved constraints on the mechanical behavior of magma chambers is essential for understanding volcanic processes; however, the role of crystal mush on the mechanical evolution of magma chambers has not yet been systematically studied. Existing magma chamber models typically consider magma chambers to be isolated melt bodies surrounded by elastic crust. In this study, we develop a physical model to account for the presence and properties of crystal mush in magma chambers and investigate its impact on the mechanical processes during and after injection of new magma. Our model assumes the magma chamber to be a spherical body consisting of a liquid core of fluid magma within a shell of crystal mush that behaves primarily as a poroelastic material. We investigate the characteristics of time‐dependent evolution in the magma chamber, both during and after the injection, and find that quantities such as overpressure and tensile stress continue to evolve after the injection has stopped, a feature that is absent in elastic (mushless) models. The time scales relevant to the postinjection evolution vary from hours to thousands of years, depending on the micromechanical properties of the mush, the viscosity of magma, and chamber size. We compare our poroelastic results to the behavior of a magma chamber with an effectively viscoelastic shell and find that only the poroelastic model displays a time scale dependence on the size of the chamber for any fixed mush volume fraction. This study demonstrates that crystal mush can significantly influence the mechanical behaviors of crustal magmatic reservoirs.
  • Article
    Transport of melt, pressure and heat through a magma mush
    (Frontiers Media, 2023-03-02) Liao, Yang
    Prior to intrusion, magma migrates through the crustal plumbing system that likely contains layers or columns of crystal mush. To better understand the behavior of the crustal magmatic system during magmatic unrest, it is important to examine the process of melt migration within the crystal mush and the associated evolution in pressure and temperature. In this study I use an analytical model to explore the characteristics of transport of melt, pressure, and heat through an idealized crystal mush layer/column under uniaxial strain condition. The model invokes a thermo-poro-viscoelastic rheology and uses a frequency-domain method to explore two scenarios of magmatic unrest: harmonic perturbation of fluid pressure, and step-rise in fluid pressure at a source location. Several factors influence the transport of melt, pressure and heat, including the thermal-mechanical coupling arising from the mush rheology, the advection of heat by melt flows, the competition between thermal diffusivity and poroelastic diffusivity, and the viscoelastic relaxation of the crystalline framework. One key finding is the development of transport asymmetry: when a background temperature gradient exists, the transport properties become different for propagation along the background thermal gradient and propagation against the background thermal gradient. Analysis on an endmember case shows that the transport asymmetry is associated to the competition between the diffusion and advection of pore pressure, which determines a Peclet number that depends on the temperature difference across the mush and the thermal expansion coefficients. Because the temperature in magma mushes in the crust likely increase with depth, the observed propagation asymmetry suggests some intrinsic difference between a bottom-up vs. a top-down triggering mechanism for magmatic unrest. The results from this study highlight the importance for further exploration for a more complete description of the transport properties in the crystal mush.
  • Article
    History‐dependent volcanic ground deformation from broad‐spectrum viscoelastic rheology around magma reservoirs
    (American Geophysical Union, 2022-12-14) Liao, Yang ; Karlstrom, Leif ; Erickson, Brittany A.
    Geodetic timeseries suggest that volcanoes exhibit a wide range of deformation patterns. Viscoelastic deformation around crustal magma storage zones is an expected contributor to such observations, but is challenging to characterize robustly. Here we present a novel approach to modeling crustal deformation around magma reservoirs that identifies frequency‐domain signatures of viscoelastic response for temperature‐dependent crustal rheology. We develop a transfer function that links unsteady reservoir pressure forcing to surface displacement, finding that thermomechanical properties and geometry of the magmatic system are encoded in viscoelastic response on timescales where geodetic observations are routinely made. Inhomogeneous viscoelasticity is reflected by spatially variable relaxation of host rocks that results in a viscous aureole whose size depends on the frequency spectrum of forcing. We explore viscoelastic signatures of broadband pressurization episodes, identifying a history dependence of volcano deformation in which past activity influences the stress state and surface deformation patterns of future episodes.
  • Dataset
    Causes of oceanic crustal thickness oscillations along a 74-Myr Mid-Atlantic Ridge flow line
    ( 2019-11-12) Shinevar, William J. ; Mark, Hannah F. ; Clerc, Fiona ; Codillo, Emmanuel A. ; Gong, Jianhua ; Olive, Jean-Arthur ; Brown, Stephanie M. ; Smalls, Paris T. ; Liao, Yang ; Le Roux, Véronique ; Behn, Mark D.
    Gravity, magnetic, and bathymetry data collected along a continuous 1400-km-long spreading-parallel flow line across the Mid-Atlantic Ridge indicate significant tectonic and magmatic fluctuations in the formation of oceanic crust over a range of timescales. The transect spans from 28 Ma on the African Plate to 74 Ma on the North American plate, crossing the Mid-Atlantic Ridge at 35.8 ºN. Gravity-derived crustal thicknesses vary from 3–9 km with a standard deviation of 1 km. Spectral analysis of bathymetry and residual mantle Bouguer anomaly (RMBA) show diffuse power at >1 Myr and concurrent peaks at 390, 550, and 950 kyr. Large-scale (>10-km) mantle thermal and compositional heterogeneities, variations in upper mantle flow, and detachment faulting likely generate the >1 Myr diffuse power. The 550- and 950-kyr peaks may reflect the presence of magma solitons and/or regularly spaced ~7.7 and 13.3 km short-wavelength mantle compositional heterogeneities. The 390-kyr spectral peak corresponds to the characteristic spacing of faults along the flow line. Fault spacing also varies over longer periods (>10 Myr), which we interpret as reflecting long-lived changes in the fraction of tectonically- vs. magmatically- accommodated extensional strain. A newly discovered off-axis oceanic core complex (Kafka Dome) found at 8 Ma on the African plate further suggests extended time periods of tectonically dominated plate separation. Fault spacing negatively correlates with gravity-derived crustal thickness, supporting a strong link between magma input and fault style at mid-ocean ridges.