Haghipour Negar

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  • Preprint
    Global-scale evidence for the refractory nature of riverine black carbon
    ( 2018-05) Coppola, Alysha I. ; Wiedemeier, Daniel B. ; Galy, Valier ; Haghipour, Negar ; Hanke, Ulrich ; Nascimento, Gabriela S. ; Usman, Muhammed ; Blattmann, Thomas M. ; Reisser, Moritz ; Freymond, Chantal V. ; Zhao, Meixun ; Voss, Britta M. ; Wacker, Lukas ; Schefuß, Enno ; Peucker-Ehrenbrink, Bernhard ; Abiven, Samuel ; Schmidt, Michael W. I. ; Eglinton, Timothy I.
    Wildfires and incomplete combustion of fossil fuel produce large amounts of black carbon. Black carbon production and transport are essential components of the carbon cycle. Constraining estimates of black carbon exported from land to ocean is critical, given ongoing changes in land use and climate, which affect fire occurrence and black carbon dynamics. Here, we present an inventory of the concentration and radiocarbon content (∆14C) of particulate black carbon for 18 rivers around the globe. We find that particulate black carbon accounts for about 15.8 ± 0.9% of river particulate organic carbon, and that fluxes of particulate black carbon co-vary with river-suspended sediment, indicating that particulate black carbon export is primarily controlled by erosion. River particulate black carbon is not exclusively from modern sources but is also aged in intermediate terrestrial carbon pools in several high-latitude rivers, with ages of up to 17,000 14C years. The flux-weighted 14C average age of particulate black carbon exported to oceans is 3,700 ± 400 14C years. We estimate that the annual global flux of particulate black carbon to the ocean is 0.017 to 0.037 Pg, accounting for 4 to 32% of the annually produced black carbon. When buried in marine sediments, particulate black carbon is sequestered to form a long-term sink for CO2.
  • Article
    Millennial soil retention of terrestrial organic matter deposited in the Bengal Fan
    (Nature Publishing Group, 2018-08-10) French, Katherine L. ; Hein, Christopher J. ; Haghipour, Negar ; Wacker, Lukas ; Kudrass, Hermann ; Eglinton, Timothy I. ; Galy, Valier
    The abundance of organic carbon (OC) in vegetation and soils (~2,600 PgC) compared to carbon in the atmosphere (~830 PgC) highlights the importance of terrestrial OC in global carbon budgets. The residence time of OC in continental reservoirs, which sets the rates of carbon exchange between land and atmosphere, represents a key uncertainty in global carbon cycle dynamics. Retention of terrestrial OC can also distort bulk OC- and biomarker-based paleorecords, yet continental storage timescales remain poorly quantified. Using “bomb” radiocarbon (14C) from thermonuclear weapons testing as a tracer, we model leaf-wax fatty acid and bulk OC 14C signatures in a river-proximal marine sediment core from the Bay of Bengal in order to constrain OC storage timescales within the Ganges-Brahmaputra (G-B) watershed. Our model shows that 79–83% of the leaf-waxes in this core were stored in continental reservoirs for an average of 1,000–1,200 calendar years, while the remainder was stored for an average of 15 years. This age structure distorts high-resolution organic paleorecords across geologically rapid events, highlighting that compound-specific proxy approaches must consider storage timescales. Furthermore, these results show that future environmental change could destabilize large stores of old - yet reactive - OC currently stored in tropical basins.
  • Preprint
    Microbial oxidation of lithospheric organic carbon in rapidly eroding tropical mountain soils
    ( 2018-02-15) Hemingway, Jordon D. ; Hilton, Robert G. ; Hovius, Niels ; Eglinton, Timothy I. ; Haghipour, Negar ; Wacker, Lukas ; Chen, Meng-Chiang ; Galy, Valier
    Lithospheric organic carbon (“petrogenic”; OCpetro) is oxidized during exhumation and subsequent erosion within mountain ranges. This process is a significant source of CO2 to the atmosphere over geologic timescales, but the mechanisms that govern oxidation rates in mountain landscapes remain poorly constrained. We demonstrate that, on average, 67 ± 11 % of OCpetro initially present in bedrock exhumed from the tropical, rapidly eroding Central Range of Taiwan is oxidized within soils, leading to CO2 emissions of 6.1 – 18.6 t C km-2 yr-1. The molecular and isotopic evolution of bulk OC and lipid biomarkers during soil formation reveals that OCpetro remineralization is microbially mediated. Rapid oxidation in mountain soils drives CO2 emissions fluxes that increase with erosion rate, thereby counteracting CO2 drawdown by silicate weathering and biospheric OC burial.
  • Article
    Short communication : Massive erosion in monsoonal central India linked to late Holocene land cover degradation
    (Copernicus Publications on behalf of the European Geosciences Union, 2017-12-01) Giosan, Liviu ; Ponton, Camilo ; Usman, Muhammed ; Blusztajn, Jerzy S. ; Fuller, Dorian Q. ; Galy, Valier ; Haghipour, Negar ; Johnson, Joel E. ; McIntyre, Cameron P. ; Wacker, Lukas ; Eglinton, Timothy I.
    Soil erosion plays a crucial role in transferring sediment and carbon from land to sea, yet little is known about the rhythm and rates of soil erosion prior to the most recent few centuries. Here we reconstruct a Holocene erosional history from central India, as integrated by the Godavari River in a sediment core from the Bay of Bengal. We quantify terrigenous fluxes, fingerprint sources for the lithogenic fraction and assess the age of the exported terrigenous carbon. Taken together, our data show that the monsoon decline in the late Holocene significantly increased soil erosion and the age of exported organic carbon. This acceleration of natural erosion was later exacerbated by the Neolithic adoption and Iron Age extensification of agriculture on the Deccan Plateau. Despite a constantly elevated sea level since the middle Holocene, this erosion acceleration led to a rapid growth of the continental margin. We conclude that in monsoon conditions aridity boosts rather than suppresses sediment and carbon export, acting as a monsoon erosional pump modulated by land cover conditions.
  • Article
    Climate control on terrestrial biospheric carbon turnover
    (National Academy of Sciences, 2021-02-23) Eglinton, Timothy I. ; Galy, Valier ; Hemingway, Jordon D. ; Feng, Xiaojuan ; Bao, Hongyan ; Blattmann, Thomas M. ; Dickens, Angela F. ; Gies, Hannah ; Giosan, Liviu ; Haghipour, Negar ; Hou, Pengfei ; Lupker, Maarten ; McIntyre, Cameron P. ; Montlucon, Daniel B. ; Peucker-Ehrenbrink, Bernhard ; Ponton, Camilo ; Schefuß, Enno ; Schwab, Melissa S. ; Voss, Britta M. ; Wacker, Lukas ; Wu, Ying ; Zhao, Meixun
    Terrestrial vegetation and soils hold three times more carbon than the atmosphere. Much debate concerns how anthropogenic activity will perturb these surface reservoirs, potentially exacerbating ongoing changes to the climate system. Uncertainties specifically persist in extrapolating point-source observations to ecosystem-scale budgets and fluxes, which require consideration of vertical and lateral processes on multiple temporal and spatial scales. To explore controls on organic carbon (OC) turnover at the river basin scale, we present radiocarbon (14C) ages on two groups of molecular tracers of plant-derived carbon—leaf-wax lipids and lignin phenols—from a globally distributed suite of rivers. We find significant negative relationships between the 14C age of these biomarkers and mean annual temperature and precipitation. Moreover, riverine biospheric-carbon ages scale proportionally with basin-wide soil carbon turnover times and soil 14C ages, implicating OC cycling within soils as a primary control on exported biomarker ages and revealing a broad distribution of soil OC reactivities. The ubiquitous occurrence of a long-lived soil OC pool suggests soil OC is globally vulnerable to perturbations by future temperature and precipitation increase. Scaling of riverine biospheric-carbon ages with soil OC turnover shows the former can constrain the sensitivity of carbon dynamics to environmental controls on broad spatial scales. Extracting this information from fluvially dominated sedimentary sequences may inform past variations in soil OC turnover in response to anthropogenic and/or climate perturbations. In turn, monitoring riverine OC composition may help detect future climate-change–induced perturbations of soil OC turnover and stocks.
  • Article
    Event-dominated transport, provenance, and burial of organic carbon in the Japan Trench
    (Elsevier, 2021-03-24) Schwestermann, Tobias ; Eglinton, Timothy I. ; Haghipour, Negar ; McNichol, Ann P. ; Ikehara, Ken ; Strasser, Michael
    The delivery of organic carbon (OC) to the ocean's deepest trenches in the hadal zone is poorly understood, but may be important for the carbon cycle, contain crucial information on sediment provenance and event-related transport processes, and provide age constraints on stratigraphic sequences in this terminal sink. In this study, we systematically characterize bulk organic matter (OM) and OC signatures (TOC/TN, C, 14C), as well as those from application of serial thermal oxidation (ramped pyrolysis/oxidation) of sediment cores recovered along an entire hadal trench encompassing high stratigraphic resolution records spanning nearly 2000 years of deposition. We analyze two cores from the southern and northern Japan Trench, where submarine canyon systems link shelf with trench. We compare results with previously published data from the central Japan Trench, where canyon systems are absent. Our analyses enable refined dating of the stratigraphic record and indicate that event deposits arise from remobilization of relatively surficial sediment coupled with deeper erosion along turbidity current pathways in the southern and central study site and from canyon flushing events in the northern study site. Furthermore, our findings indicate deposition of predominantly marine OC within hemipelagic background sediment as well as associated with event deposits along the entire trench axis. This implies that canyon systems flanking the Japan Trench do not serve as a short-circuit for injection of terrestrial OC to the hadal zone, and that tropical cyclones are not major agents for sediment and carbon transfer into this trench system. These findings further support previous Japan Trench studies interpreting that event deposits originate from the landward trench slope and are earthquake-triggered. The very low terrestrial OC input into the Japan Trench can be explained by the significant distance between trench and hinterland (>180 km), and the physiography of the canyons that do not connect to coast and river systems. We suggest that detailed analyzes of long sedimentary records are essential to understand OC transfer, deposition and burial in hadal trenches.
  • Article
    Organic carbon aging during across‐shelf transport
    (John Wiley & Sons, 2018-08-22) Bao, Rui ; Uchida, Masao ; Zhao, Meixun ; Haghipour, Negar ; Montlucon, Daniel B. ; McNichol, Ann P. ; Wacker, Lukas ; Hayes, John M. ; Eglinton, Timothy I.
    Compound‐specific radiocarbon analysis was performed on different grain‐size fractions of surficial sediments to examine and compare lateral transport times (LTTs) of organic carbon. 14C aging of long‐chain leaf wax fatty acids along two dispersal pathways of fluvially derived material on adjacent continental margins implies LTTs over distances of ~30 to 500 km that range from hundreds to thousands of years. The magnitude of aging differs among grain size fractions. Our finding suggests that LTTs vary both temporally and spatially as a function of the specific properties of different continental shelf settings. Observations suggest that 14C aging is widespread during lateral transport over continental shelves, with hydrodynamic particle sorting inducing age variations among organic components residing in different grain sizes. Consideration of these phenomena is of importance for understanding carbon cycle processes and interpretation on sedimentary records on continental margins.
  • Article
    On the origin of aged sedimentary organic matter along a river-shelf-deep ocean transect
    (American Geophysical Union, 2019-08-12) Bao, Rui ; Zhao, Meixun ; McNichol, Ann P. ; Wu, Ying ; Guo, Xinyu ; Haghipour, Negar ; Eglinton, Timothy I.
    To assess the influences of carbon sources and transport processes on the 14C age of organic matter (OM) in continental margin sediments, we examined a suite of samples collected along a river‐shelf‐deep ocean transect in the East China Sea (ECS). Ramped pyrolysis‐oxidiation was conducted on suspended particulate matter in the Yangtze River and on surface sediments from the ECS shelf and northern Okinawa Trough. 14C ages were determined on OM decomposition products within different temperature windows. These measurements suggest that extensive amounts of pre‐old (i.e., millennial age) organic carbon (OC) are subject to degradation within and beyond the Yangtze River Delta, and this process is accompanied by an exchange of terrestrial and marine OM. These results, combined with fatty acid concentration data, suggest that both the nature and extent of OM preservation/degradation as well as the modes of transport influence the 14C ages of sedimentary OM. Additionally, we find that the age of (thermally) refractory OC increases during across‐shelf transport and that the age offset between the lowest and highest temperature OC decomposition fractions also increases along the shelf‐to‐trough transect. Amplified interfraction spread or 14C heterogeneity is the greatest in the Okinawa Trough. Aged sedimentary OM across the transect may be a consequence of several reasons including fossil OC input, selective degradation of younger OC, hydrodynamic sorting processes, and aging during lateral transport. Consequently, each of them should be considered in assessing the 14C results of sedimentary OM and its implications for the carbon cycle and interpretation of sedimentary records.
  • Article
    Temporal and spatial variability of particle transport in the deep Arctic Canada Basin
    (John Wiley & Sons, 2015-04-11) Hwang, Jeomshik ; Kim, Minkyoung ; Manganini, Steven J. ; McIntyre, Cameron P. ; Haghipour, Negar ; Park, Jong Jin ; Krishfield, Richard A. ; Macdonald, Robie W. ; McLaughlin, Fiona A. ; Eglinton, Timothy I.
    To better understand the current carbon cycle and potentially detect its change in the rapidly changing Arctic Ocean, we examined sinking particles collected quasi-continuously over a period of 7 years (2004–2011) by bottom-tethered sediment trap moorings in the central Canada Basin. Total mass flux was very low (<100 mg m−2 d−1) at all sites and was temporally decoupled from the cycle of primary production in surface waters. Extremely low radiocarbon contents of particulate organic carbon and high aluminum contents in sinking particles reveal high contributions of resuspended sediment to total sinking particle flux in the deep Canada Basin. Station A (75°N, 150°W) in the southwest quadrant of the Canada Basin is most strongly influenced while Station C (77°N, 140°W) in the northeast quadrant is least influenced by lateral particle supply based on radiocarbon content and Al concentration. The results at Station A, where three sediment traps were deployed at different depths, imply that the most likely mode of lateral particle transport was as thick clouds of enhanced particle concentration extending well above the seafloor. At present, only 1%–2% of the low levels of new production in Canada Basin surface waters reaches the interior basin. Lateral POC supply therefore appears to be the major source of organic matter to the interior basin. However, ongoing changes to surface ocean boundary conditions may influence both lateral and vertical supply of particulate material to the deep Canada Basin.
  • Article
    Reconciling drainage and receiving basin signatures of the Godavari River system
    (Copernicus Publications on behalf of the European Geosciences Union, 2018-06-07) Usman, Muhammed ; Kirkels, Frédérique M. S. A. ; Zwart, Huub M. ; Basu, Sayak ; Ponton, Camilo ; Blattmann, Thomas M. ; Ploetze, Michael ; Haghipour, Negar ; McIntyre, Cameron P. ; Peterse, Francien ; Lupker, Maarten ; Giosan, Liviu ; Eglinton, Timothy I.
    The modern-day Godavari River transports large amounts of sediment (170 Tg per year) and terrestrial organic carbon (OCterr; 1.5 Tg per year) from peninsular India to the Bay of Bengal. The flux and nature of OCterr is considered to have varied in response to past climate and human forcing. In order to delineate the provenance and nature of organic matter (OM) exported by the fluvial system and establish links to sedimentary records accumulating on its adjacent continental margin, the stable and radiogenic isotopic composition of bulk OC, abundance and distribution of long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs), sedimentological properties (e.g. grain size, mineral surface area, etc.) of fluvial (riverbed and riverbank) sediments and soils from the Godavari basin were analysed and these characteristics were compared to those of a sediment core retrieved from the continental slope depocenter. Results show that river sediments from the upper catchment exhibit higher total organic carbon (TOC) contents than those from the lower part of the basin. The general relationship between TOC and sedimentological parameters (i.e. mineral surface area and grain size) of the sediments suggests that sediment mineralogy, largely driven by provenance, plays an important role in the stabilization of OM during transport along the river axis, and in the preservation of OM exported by the Godavari to the Bay of Bengal. The stable carbon isotopic (δ13C) characteristics of river sediments and soils indicate that the upper mainstream and its tributaries drain catchments exhibiting more 13C enriched carbon than the lower stream, resulting from the regional vegetation gradient and/or net balance between the upper (C4-dominated plants) and lower (C3-dominated plants) catchments. The radiocarbon contents of organic carbon (Δ14COC) in deep soils and eroding riverbanks suggests these are likely sources of "old" or pre-aged carbon to the Godavari River that increasingly dominates the late Holocene portion of the offshore sedimentary record. While changes in water flow and sediment transport resulting from recent dam construction have drastically impacted the flux, loci, and composition of OC exported from the modern Godavari basin, complicating reconciliation of modern-day river basin geochemistry with that recorded in continental margin sediments, such investigations provide important insights into climatic and anthropogenic controls on OC cycling and burial.
  • Article
    Influence of hydraulic connectivity on carbon burial efficiency in Mackenzie Delta lake sediments
    (American Geophysical Union, 2021-02-02) Lattaud, Julie ; Bröder, Lisa ; Haghipour, Negar ; Rickli, Joerg ; Giosan, Liviu ; Eglinton, Timothy I.
    The Arctic is undergoing accelerated changes in response to ongoing modifications to the climate system, and there is a need for local to regional scale records of past climate variability in order to put these changes into context. The Mackenzie Delta region in northern Canada is populated by numerous small shallow lakes. They are classified as no-, low-, and high-closure (NC, LC, and HC, respectively) lakes, reflecting varying degrees of connection to the river main stem, and have different sedimentation characteristics. This study examines sedimentological (mineral surface area, grain size), carbon isotopic (bulk and molecular-level) and inorganic isotopic (neodymium) characteristics of sediment cores from three lakes representing each class. We find that HC lake sediments exhibit strikingly different properties from the other lake sediments. Specifically, they are characterized by higher organic carbon loadings per unit mineral surface area and with relatively minor influence from allochthonous, petrogenic (rock-derived) organic carbon. In contrast, LC and NC lakes have the potential to record basin-scale climatic changes at a high resolution by virtue of enhanced detrital sedimentation. Overall the delta lakes have the capacity to bury about 2 MtC year−1, with little changes in the last 200 years. However, in the (near) future, an increased number of high closure lakes might change the carbon burial efficiency of the Mackenzie Delta as they seem to retain less carbon than NC and LC lakes.
  • Article
    Tectonically-triggered sediment and carbon export to the Hadal zone
    (Nature Publishing Group, 2018-01-09) Bao, Rui ; Strasser, Michael ; McNichol, Ann P. ; Haghipour, Negar ; McIntyre, Cameron P. ; Wefer, Gerold ; Eglinton, Timothy I.
    Sediments in deep ocean trenches may contain crucial information on past earthquake history and constitute important sites of carbon burial. Here we present 14C data on bulk organic carbon (OC) and its thermal decomposition fractions produced by ramped pyrolysis/oxidation for a core retrieved from the >7.5 km-deep Japan Trench. High-resolution 14C measurements, coupled with distinctive thermogram characteristics of OC, reveal hemipelagic sedimentation interrupted by episodic deposition of pre-aged OC in the trench. Low δ13C values and diverse 14C ages of thermal fractions imply that the latter material originates from the adjacent margin, and the co-occurrence of pre-aged OC with intervals corresponding to known earthquake events implies tectonically triggered, gravity-flow-driven supply. We show that 14C ages of thermal fractions can yield valuable chronological constraints on sedimentary sequences. Our findings shed new light on links between tectonically driven sedimentological processes and marine carbon cycling, with implications for carbon dynamics in hadal environments.
  • Article
    Constraining instantaneous fluxes and integrated compositions of fluvially discharged organic matter
    (American Geophysical Union, 2018-06-07) Freymond, Chantal V. ; Lupker, Maarten ; Peterse, Francien ; Haghipour, Negar ; Wacker, Lukas ; Filip, Florin ; Giosan, Liviu ; Eglinton, Timothy
    Fluvial export of organic carbon (OC) and burial in ocean sediments comprises an important carbon sink, but fluxes remain poorly constrained, particularly for specific organic components. Here OC and lipid biomarker contents and isotopic characteristics of suspended matter determined in depth profiles across an active channel close to the terminus of the Danube River are used to constrain instantaneous OC and biomarker fluxes and integrated compositions during high to moderate discharges. During high (moderate) discharge, the total Danube exports 8 (7) kg/s OC, 7 (3) g/s higher plant‐derived long‐chain fatty acids (LCFA), 34 (21) g/s short‐chain fatty acids (SCFA), and 0.5 (0.2) g/s soil bacterial membrane lipids (brGDGTs). Integrated stable carbon isotopic compositions were TOC: −28.0 (−27.6)‰, LCFA: −33.5 (−32.8)‰ and Δ14C TOC: −129 (−38)‰, LCFA: −134 (−143)‰, respectively. Such estimates will aid in establishing quantitative links between production, export, and burial of OC from the terrestrial biosphere.