Layne Graham D.

No Thumbnail Available
Last Name
First Name
Graham D.

Search Results

Now showing 1 - 5 of 5
  • Article
    Mechanisms of degassing at Nevado del Ruiz volcano, Colombia
    (Geological Society, 2003) Stix, John ; Layne, Graham D. ; Williams, S. N.
    Nevado del Ruiz volcano is an andesite stratovolcano located in the northern Andes of Colombia. The volcano erupted on 11 September 1985, 13 November 1985, and 1 September 1989. The last two eruptions emitted juvenile solid material. This paper examines the volatile and light lithophile trace element contents of melt inclusions and matrix glasses from this juvenile material, and proposes a model for degassing within the volcano. Major element distributions in the glasses show two evolutionary trends, with subsidiary points that lie between the two trends. The data suggest the existence of two separate magmas, which have interacted, mingled, and mixed during their ascent and eruption. Water contents in melt inclusions, as determined by secondary ionization mass spectrometric analysis, are generally low, averaging between 1.6 and 3.3 wt.%. Halogen concentrations in the glasses range from 400 to 1200 ppm for fluorine and from 1100 to 1500 ppm for chlorine. Sulphur contents are low, not exceeding 500 ppm, with most glasses containing <200 ppm. Lithium concentrations range from 20 to 40 ppm, beryllium from 1.5 to 2 ppm, and boron exhibits high variability from 30 to 100 ppm. The only significant difference between melt inclusions and matrix glasses is for water, with matrix glasses having significantly lower concentrations (<0.5 wt.%) than the melt inclusions. The generally elevated concentrations of boron in the magma may be a consequence of enrichment in the source region of the magma, i.e. by subduction of altered oceanic crust and/or sediments. Yet the large degree of boron heterogeneity in both melt inclusions and matrix glasses necessitates subsequent addition of boron at shallower depths as well, by the assimilation of crustal sedimentary rocks or by interaction with hydrothermal fluids. Evidence for pre-eruptive magma emplacement at shallow levels is provided by (1) anhydrous mineral assemblages of plagioclase and pyroxene, (2) high silica contents of glasses, and (3) low water contents in melt inclusions. When combined, these observations suggest a period of magma residence at shallow depths, probably <3 km beneath the summit of the volcano. A multistage model of magma transport and degassing involves alternating periods of magma ascent and magma ponding. Initially, volatile-bearing magma ascends from depths of 9–15 km, driven by buoyancy. During decompression, the magma loses gas, particularly CO2 and sulphur. The magma eventually ponds at its neutral buoyancy level. At this point, the gas-saturated magma cools and crystallizes, thereby liberating gas under isobaric conditions. As a result, CO2 is depleted from the magma whereas H2O and SiO2 are enriched. The H2O enrichment is caused by its increased solubility in the magma as CO2 is degassed, whereas SiO2 is enriched by fractional crystallization. The density of the magma decreases as the level of dissolved H2O increases, eventually causing the magma to become buoyant once more and to continue its ascent, either to erupt or to freeze at shallow depths.
  • Article
    Application of secondary ion mass spectrometry to the determination of Mg/Ca in rare, delicate, or altered planktonic foraminifera : examples from the Holocene, Paleogene, and Cretaceous
    (American Geophysical Union, 2005-12-23) Bice, Karen L. ; Layne, Graham D. ; Dahl, Kristina A.
    Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) is useful for measuring Mg/Ca in both primary calcite and diagenetic minerals in planktonic foraminifera. The excellent spatial resolution (<10 μm) and small amount of material removed (<2 ng) makes it easy to avoid targets that include obvious embedding material and encrusting or infilling minerals such as secondary calcite and authigenic clays in diagenetically altered samples. Because analyses can be performed on individuals, SIMS is also a viable technique for generating Mg/Ca values from sediment samples in which foraminifera are rare or have low mass. For clean primary calcite samples, Mg/Ca ratios from SIMS compare well to those obtained using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), while maintaining information regarding the true variability of elemental ratios within individual tests. For samples with secondary calcite or stubbornly adhering clays, SIMS enables us to accurately measure primary calcite compositions and to assess and reconcile contamination problems in bulk samples analyzed by solution-based ICP-MS. We have observed that SIMS is an invaluable and reliable tool for the identification and avoidance of problems of diagenesis and the analysis of rare or delicate planktonic foraminifera. However, because of operator time required to properly target delicate (thin-walled) or contaminated planktonic foraminifera, SIMS may not be feasible for Mg/Ca studies where large numbers (hundreds) of samples must be processed and bulk measurements on multiple individuals will suffice.
  • Article
    238U-Th-230-Ra-226-Pb-210-Po-210, Th-232-Ra-228, and U-235-Pa-231 constraints on the ages and petrogenesis of Vailulu'u and Malumalu Lavas, Samoa
    (American Geophysical Union, 2008-04-01) Sims, Kenneth W. W. ; Hart, Stanley R. ; Reagan, Mark K. ; Blusztajn, Jerzy S. ; Staudigel, Hubert ; Sohn, Robert A. ; Layne, Graham D. ; Ball, Lary A. ; Andrews, J. E.
    We report 238U-230Th-226Ra-210Pb-210Po, 232Th-228Ra and 235U-231Pa measurements for a suite of 14 geologically and geochemically well-characterized basaltic samples from the Samoan volcanoes Vailulu'u, Malumalu, and Savai'i. Maximum eruption ages based on the presence of parent-daughter disequilibria indicate that Vailulu'u is magmatically productive with young lavas (<8 Ka) resurfacing both its summit crater and lower flanks. 210Pb and 210Po measurements indicate that several flows have erupted within its summit crater in the past 100 years, with the newest observed flow being erupted in November of 2004. For lavas which have eruption ages that are demonstrably young, relative to the half-lives of 230Th, 231Pa, and 226Ra, we interpret their 238U -230Th, 235U-231Pa and 230Th - 226Ra disequilibria in terms of the magmatic processes occurring beneath the Samoan Islands. (230Th/238U) > 1 indicates that garnet is required as a residual phase in the magma sources for all these lavas. The large range of (238U/232Th) and (230Th/232Th) is attributed to long-term source variation. The Samoan basalts are all alkaline basalts and show significant 230Th and 231Pa excesses but limited variability, indicating that they have been derived by small but similar extents of melting. Their (230Th/238U), (231Pa/235U) and Sm/Nd fractionation are consistent with correlations among other ocean island basalt suites (particularly Hawaii) which show that (230Th/238U) and (231Pa/235U) of many OIBS can be explained by simple time-independent models. Interpretation of the 226Ra data requires time-dependent melting models. Both chromatographic porous flow and dynamic melting of a garnet peridotite source can adequately explain the combined U-Th-Ra and U-Pa data for these Samoan basalts. Several young samples from the Vailulu'u summit crater also exhibit significant 210Pb deficits that reflect either shallow magmatic processes or continuous magma degassing. In both cases, decadal residence times are inferred from these 210Pb deficits. The young coeval volcanism on Malumalu and Vailulu'u suggests the Samoa hot spot is currently migrating to the northeast due to dynamic interaction with the Tonga slab.
  • Article
    Volcanic glasses at the Izu arc volcanic front : new perspectives on fluid and sediment melt recycling in subduction zones
    (American Geophysical Union, 2004-01-22) Straub, S. M. ; Layne, Graham D. ; Schmidt, A. ; Langmuir, Charles H.
    Volcanic glasses contained in distal fallout tephras from the Izu arc volcanic front (Izu VF) provide unique perspectives on general problems of arc volcanism. Unlike cogenetic lavas, these glasses are liquid compositions where element concentrations as well as ratios have significance. Isotopic evidence and previous work show that there is no sediment melt contribution to the sources of the Izu VF tephras, and hence their trace element characteristics permit determination of the trace element contents of slab fluids. The slab fluid is a composite of metasediment (∼5% of total fluid) and metabasalt (∼95%) component fluids, and carries large ion lithophile elements (LILE) with high LILE/Th and LILE/U, and low Th and U relative to source. Except for Sr and K, the metabasalt fluid is much less enriched than the metasediment fluid, but its large relative proportions make it an important carrier of many trace elements. The metabasalt fluid has the characteristics of the arc trace element signature, obviating the need for ubiquitous involvement of sediment in arc magma genesis. The fluid component in the tephras is remarkably constant in composition over fifteen million years, and hence appears to be a robust composition that may be applicable to other convergent margins. Assuming that the metabasalt fluid is a common component, and that distribution coefficients between sediment and fluid are similar from one arc to another, composite fluid compositions can be estimated for other arcs. Differences from this composition then would likely result from a sediment melt component. Comparison to arcs with sediment melt components in their source (Marianas, eastern Aleutians) shows that partial sediment melts may be so enriched, that they can completely mask the signature of the comingling slab fluids. Hence sediment melts can easily dominate the trace element and isotopic signature of many convergent margins. Since sediment melts inherit the LILE/LILE ratios of the trench sediment, Earth's surface processes must eventually influence the compositional diversity of arcs.
  • Article
    Pulsed subduction accretion and tectonic erosion reconstructed since 2.5 Ma from the tephra record offshore Costa Rica
    (American Geophysical Union, 2005-09-27) Clift, Peter D. ; Chan, Lui-Heung ; Blusztajn, Jerzy S. ; Layne, Graham D. ; Kastner, Miriam ; Kelly, Robyn K.
    Tephra layers recovered by Ocean Drilling Program from the forearc and trench regions offshore the Nicoya Peninsula of Costa Rica allow the temporal evolution of the volcanic arc to be reconstructed since 2.5 Ma. Major and trace element analyses by microprobe methods reveal a dominant tholeiitic character and a provenance in the Costa Rican area. The tephra show long-term coherent variability in geochemistry. One tephra dated at 1.45 Ma shows minimum values in ɛ Nd and maximum Li/Y consistent with very high degrees of sediment recycling at this time. However, overall Li/Y and δ7Li increase with SiO2 content, suggesting addition of heavy Li through forearc tectonic erosion and crustal assimilation. Peak values in δ7Li starting at 1.45 Ma and lasting ∼0.5 m.y. indicate enhanced tectonic erosion of the forearc possibly caused by subduction of a seamount at 1.45 Ma. The tephra record indicates significant temporal variability in terms of sediment subduction, reconciling the geologic evidence for long-term tectonic erosion and geochemical evidence for recent sediment accretion in the modern Central American arc.