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ArticleThe Dababiya corehole, Upper Nile Valley, Egypt : preliminary results(Austrian Geological Society, 2012) Berggren, William A. ; Alegret, Laia ; Aubry, Marie-Pierre ; Cramer, Ben S. ; Dupuis, Christian ; Goolaerts, Sijn ; Kent, Dennis V. ; King, Christopher ; Knox, Robert W. O'B. ; Obaidalla, Nageh ; Ortiz, Silvia ; Ouda, Khaled A. K. ; Abdel-Sabour, Ayman ; Salem, Rehab ; Senosy, Mahmoud M. ; Soliman, Mamdouh F. ; Soliman, AliThe Dababiya corehole was drilled in the Dababiya Quarry (Upper Nile Valley, Egypt), adjacent to the GSSP for the Paleocene/ Eocene boundary, to a total depth of 140 m and bottomed in the lower Maastrichtian Globotruncana aegyptiaca Zone of the Dakhla Shale Formation. Preliminary integrated studies on calcareous plankton (foraminifera, nannoplankton), benthic foraminifera, dinoflagellates, ammonites, geochemistry, clay mineralogy and geophysical logging indicate that: 1) The K/P boundary lies between 80.4 and 80.2 m, the Danian/Selandian boundary between ~ 41 and 43 m, the Selandian/Thanetian boundary at ~ 30 m (within the mid-part of the Tarawan Chalk) and the Paleocene/Eocene boundary at 11.75 m (base [planktonic foraminifera] Zone E1 and [calcareous nannoplankton] Zone NP9b); 2) the Dababiya Quarry Member (=Paleocene/Eocene Thermal Maximum interval) extends from 11.75 to 9.5 m, which is ~1 m less than in the adjacent GSSP outcrop.; 3) the Late Cretaceous (Maastrichtian) depositional environment was nearshore, tropical-sub tropical and nutrient rich; the latest Maastrichtian somewhat more restricted (coastal); and the early Danian cooler, low(er) salinity with increasing warmth and depth of water (i.e., more open water); 4) the Paleocene is further characterized by outer shelf (~ 200 m), warm water environments as supported by foraminifera P/B ratios > 85% (~79-28 m), whereas benthic foraminifera dominate (>70%) from ~27-12 m (Tarawan Chalk and Hanadi Member) due, perhaps, in part to increased dissolution (as observed in nearby outcrop samples over this interval); 5) during the PETM, enhanced hydrodynamic conditions are inferred to have occurred on the sea-floor with increased river discharge (in agreement with sedimentologic evidence), itself a likely cause for very high enhanced biological productivity on the epicontinental shelf of Egypt; 6) correlation of in situ measured geophysical logs of Natural Gamma Ray (GR), Single-Point Resistance (PR), Self-Potential (SP), magnetic susceptibility (MS), and Resistivity, and Short Normal (SN) and Long Normal (LN) showed correspondence to the lithologic units. The Dababiya Quarry Member, in particular, is characterized by very high Gamma Ray and Resistivity Short Normal values.
PreprintUpper Paleocene-Lower Eocene biostratigraphy of Darb Gaga, Southeastern Kharga Oasis Western Desert, Egypt( 2016-02) Ouda, Khaled ; Berggren, William A. ; Abdel-Sabour, AymanPaleontological studies on the Upper Paleocene-Lower Eocene succession at Darb Gaga, southeastern Kharga Oasis, Western Desert, Egypt document the changes associated with the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM), such as 1) a radical alteration of the relative and absolute abundance of planktonic foraminifera; 2) a massive occurrence of the excursion planktonic foraminiferal taxa; 3) a widespread deposition of calcarenite yielding atypical (extremely high) faunal abundance associated with the younger phase of warming; and 4) a concentration of coprolites associated with the middle phase of warming. We also document the Lowest Occurrence (LO) of dimorphic larger benthic and excursion foraminifera during the earlier phase of warming at Darb Gaga, as recorded in Bed 1 of the Dababiya Quarry Member. The absence of these faunas in Bed 1 at Dababiya (the GSSP for the P/E Boundary) is likely to be due to both intense deficiency in dissolved oxygen and massive carbonate dissolution. Only remains (fish remains) of faunas that can tolerate the toxicity produced by low oxygen conditions are found in the stratigraphic record of this (oldest) phase at Dababiya. The Dababiya Quarry Member (DQM) at Darb Gaga reflects the unfolding of the sedimentary and biotic changes associated with the PETM global warming at, and following, the Paleocene/Eocene boundary on the southern Tethys platform. The changes began with a rapid increase in bottom and “intermediate” water temperature. The temperature increase was accompanied by removal of oxygen during the early and middle stages of warming. This led to the absence of both subbotinids and calcareous benthic foraminifera in the early and second coprolite-bearing phases (Beds 2 and 3 of the DQM). Dissolution seems to have no role during these stages as shown by the unusual abundance and good preservation of the warm-tolerant Ac. sibaiyaensis. This species reaches its maximum abundance in Bed 2 where it exhibits a broad range of size (63-250 μm) and shape that probably reflect optimal growth under the warmest water conditions. Thus, we infer that temperature and dissolved oxygen content of the sea-water were the main factors controlling the distribution pattern(s) of the microplankton and microbenthos during the PETM.