Klinkhammer Gary P.

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Gary P.

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  • Article
    Eastern Pacific Warm Pool paleosalinity and climate variability : 0–30 kyr
    (American Geophysical Union, 2006-08-16) Benway, Heather M. ; Mix, Alan C. ; Haley, Brian A. ; Klinkhammer, Gary P.
    Multi-proxy geologic records of δ18O and Mg/Ca in fossil foraminifera from sediments under the Eastern Pacific Warm Pool (EPWP) region west of Central America document variations in upper ocean temperature, pycnocline strength, and salinity (i.e., net precipitation) over the past 30 ky. Although evident in the paleotemperature record, there is no glacial-interglacial difference in paleosalinity, suggesting that tropical hydrologic changes do not respond passively to high-latitude ice sheets and oceans. Millennial variations in paleosalinity with amplitudes as high as ~4 PSU occur with a dominant period of ~3-5 ky during the glacial/deglacial interval and ~1.0-1.5 ky during the Holocene. The amplitude of the EPWP paleosalinity changes greatly exceeds that of published Caribbean and western tropical Pacific paleosalinity records. EPWP paleosalinity changes correspond to millennial-scale climate changes in the surface and deep Atlantic and the high northern latitudes, with generally higher (lower) paleosalinity during cold (warm) events. In addition to Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) dynamics, which play an important role in tropical hydrologic variability, changes in Atlantic-Pacific moisture transport, which is closely linked to ITCZ dynamics, may also contribute to hydrologic variations in the EPWP. Calculations of interbasin salinity average and interbasin salinity contrast between the EPWP and the Caribbean help differentiate long-term changes in mean ITCZ position and Atlantic-Pacific moisture transport, respectively.
  • Preprint
    Geochemical proxies of North American freshwater routing during the Younger Dryas cold event
    ( 2006-12-19) Carlson, Anders E. ; Clark, Peter U. ; Haley, Brian A. ; Klinkhammer, Gary P. ; Simmons, Kathleen ; Brook, Edward J. ; Meissner, Katrin J.
    The Younger Dryas cold interval represents a time when much of the Northern Hemisphere cooled from ~12.9 to 11.5 kiloyears before present. The cause of this event, which has long been viewed as the canonical example of abrupt climate change, was initially attributed to the routing of freshwater to the St. Lawrence River with an attendant reduction in Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. However, this mechanism has recently been questioned because current proxies and dating techniques have been unable to confirm that eastward routing with an increase in freshwater flux occurred during the Younger Dryas. Here we use new geochemical proxies (ΔMg/Ca, U/Ca & 87Sr/86Sr) measured in planktonic foraminifera at the mouth of the St. Lawrence Estuary as tracers of freshwater sources to further evaluate this question. Our proxies, combined with planktonic δ18Oseawater and δ13C, confirm that routing of runoff from western Canada to the St. Lawrence River occurred at the start of the Younger Dryas, with an attendant increase in freshwater flux of 0.06 ± 0.02 Sverdrup (1 Sverdrup (Sv) = 106 m3 s-1). This base discharge increase is sufficient to have reduced Atlantic meridional overturning circulation and caused the Younger Dryas cold interval. In addition, our data indicate subsequent fluctuations in the freshwater flux to the St. Lawrence River of ~0.06 to 0.12 Sv, thus explaining the variability in the overturning circulation and climate during the Younger Dryas.