Bower Amy S.

No Thumbnail Available
Last Name
Bower
First Name
Amy S.
ORCID
0000-0003-0902-4984

Search Results

Now showing 1 - 12 of 12
  • Technical Report
    Boundary current experiment I & II, RAFOS float data report, 1994-1997
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 1998-03) Hunt, Heather D. ; Bower, Amy S.
    This is the final data report of all RAFOS (acoustically tracked) float data collected during the 1994-1997 Boundary Current Experiment (BOUNCE) study of the Deep Western Boundary Current (DWBC) in the North Atlantic Ocean. The overall objective of the program was to obtain the first comprehensive description of the North Atlantic DWBC's variability over a large path segment from Cape Hatteras to the Grand Banks. The experiment was comprised of CTD, tracer, and RAFOS float observations to achieve both Eulerian and Lagrangian descriptions of the DWBC. The three main objectives of the Lagrangian float study were 1) to determine fluid parcel pathways in the DWBC and identify regions of exchange with the interior, 2) to estimate the mean speed and variabilty of fluid parcels at two different levels in the DWBC, and 3) to study the kinematics and potential vorticity dynamics of fluid parcels in the DWBC at the Gulf Stream cross-over point near Cape Hatteras. Thirty floats were deployed: 15 were designed to be isopycnal floats, and 15 were isobaric floats. The isopycnal floats were ballasted for the 0, = 27.73 density surface (approximately 800 decibars (db)) to seed the Upper Labrador Sea Water. The isobaric floats were ballasted for 3000 db to seed the Nordic Seas overflow water.
  • Technical Report
    Warm water pathways in the northeastern North Atlantic ACCE RAFOS float data report November 1996 - November 1999
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 2001-11) Furey, Heather H. ; Bower, Amy S. ; Richardson, Philip L.
    This is the final data report of all acoustically tracked RAFOS float data collected by the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution in 1996-1999 during the Atlantic Climate Change Experiment (ACCE). The RAFOS float component of ACCE, entitled "Warm Water Pathways and Intergyre Exchange in the Northeastern North Atlantic," was designed to measure the warm water currents entering the northeastern North Atlantic which become the source of intermediate and deep waters in the subpolar region. The experiment was comprised of three RAFOS float deployments on the R/V Knorr: the first in fall 1996 along the continental slope seaward of Porcupine Bank, the second in spring 1997 along the mid-Atlantic Ridge, and the final deployment in fall 1997 along both the Ridge and the Bank. Seventy floats were deployed, 13 RAFOS and 2 ALFOS in fall 1996, 14 RAFOS in spring 1997, and 41 RAFOS in fall 1997. The isobaric ALFOS floats were ballasted for 800 decibars and were launched to monitor the regions' sound sources during the experiment. The RAFOS floats were isopycnal and ballasted for the 27.5 sigma-t surface to target the intermediate-depth North Atlantic and Poleward Eastern Boundary Currents. The objectives of the Lagrangian float study were (1) to provide a quantitative description of the bifurcation of the North Atlantic Current east of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, (2) to assess the importance of meridional eddy fluxes, compared to large-scale advection, in the northward flux of heat and salt in the northeastern North Atlantic, and (3) to establish the degree of continuity of the Poleward Eastern Boundary Current as it flows to the entrance of the Norwegian Sea and the fate of the Mediterranean Outflow Water carried by this current.
  • Technical Report
    A Mediterranean undercurrent seeding experiment (AMUSE) : part II: RAFOS float data report, May 1993-March 1995
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 1998-06) Hunt, Heather D. ; Wooding, Christine M. ; Chandler, Cynthia L. ; Bower, Amy S.
    This is the final data report of all acoustically tracked RAFOS data collected in 1993-1995 during A Mediterranean Undercurrent Seeding Experiment (AMUSE). The overall objective of the program was to observe directly the spreading pathways by which Mediterranean Water enters the North Atlantic. This includes the direct observation of Mediterranean eddies (meddies), which is one mechanism that transports Mediterranean Water to the North Atlantic. The experiment was comprised of a repeated high-resolution expendable bathythermograph (XBT) section and RAFOS float deployments across the Mediterranean Undercurrent south of Portugal near 8.5°W. A total of 49 floats were deployed at a rate of about two floats per week on 23 cruises on the chartered Portuguese-based vessel, Kialoa II, and one cruise on the R/V Endeavor. The floats were ballasted for 1100 or 1200 decibars (db) to seed the lower salinity core of the Mediterranean Undercurrent. The objectives of the Lagrangian float study were (1) to identify where meddies form, (2) to make the first direct estimate of meddy formation frequency, (3) to estimate the fraction of time meddies are being formed, and (4) to determine the pathways by which Mediterranean Water which is not trapped in meddies enters the North Atlantic.
  • Technical Report
    Hydrographic data from the U. S. Naval Oceanographic Office : Persian Gulf, Southern Red Sea, and Arabian Sea, 1923-1996
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 1999-04) Alessi, Carol A. ; Hunt, Heather D. ; Bower, Amy S.
    Temperature-salinity-depth profile data were obtained for the Persian Gulf, Southern Red Sea and parts of the Arabian Sea from the Master Oceanographic Data Set (MOODS), located at the U. S. Naval Oceanographic Office (NAVOCEANO), Stennis Space Center, Mississippi. These data were used as part of a physical oceanographic study of the Red Sea and Persian Gulf outflows. This report documents the organization of the data set and the method of quality control used to eliminate unrealistic data. Also, it provides a summary in graphic form of the hydrographic observations.
  • Technical Report
    Red Sea Outflow Experiment (REDSOX) : DLD2 RAFOS float data report February 2001 - March 2003
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 2005-01) Furey, Heather H. ; Bower, Amy S. ; Fratantoni, David M.
    This is the final data report of all acoustically tracked second-generation Deep Lagrangian Drifter (DLD2) RAFOS float data collected by the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution in 2001-2003 during the Red Sea Outflow Experiment (REDSOX). The float component of REDSOX was comprised of two deployments on the R/V Knorr and R/V Ewing: the first in February-March 2001, with 26 floats, and the second in August-September 2001, with 27 floats. The isobaric floats were ballasted for 650 decibars to target the intermediate-depth, high-salinity outflow waters from the Red Sea. The objectives of the Lagrangian float study were (1) to identify the spreading pathways of the equilibrated Red Sea outflow, and to quantify the velocities and eddy variability typical of this outflow and of the background oceanic environment in the Gulf of Aden, and (2) to identify and describe the mesoscale processes which contribute to the seaward transport of Red Sea Overflow Water properties through the Gulf of Aden and into the western Indian Ocean. In addition to floats activated and launched during the two cruises, four time-series sites were chosen for dual-release float moorings. The dual-release floats were released every two months between cruises and every two months after the second cruise, with the final release in March 2002. A pirate attack on the R/V Ewing forced some modification of the float deployment plan during the second cruise.
  • Technical Report
    A crossroads of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation : the Charlie-Gibbs Fracture Zone data report August 2010 – June 2012
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 2014-08) Furey, Heather H. ; Trafford, Leah ; Bower, Amy S.
    This is the final data report of all mooring data collected by the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution in 2010-2012 during the experiment A Crossroads of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation: The Charlie-Gibbs Fracture Zone. The objectives of this experiment were (1) to obtain an improved direct estimate of the mean and low-frequency variability of the deep westward transport of the Iceland-Scotland Overflow Water through the Charlie-Gibbs Fracture Zone (CGFZ), and (2) to gain a better understanding of the causes of the low-frequency variability in the transport of overflow waters through the CGFZ, especially of the role of the North Atlantic Current in generating this variability. The mooring deployment and recovery cruises were on German research vessels, courtesy of Drs. Monika Rhein and Dagmar Kieke: the R/V Meteor cruise M82/2 in August 2010 and R/V Maria S. Merian cruise MSM 21/2 in June 2012, respectively. The CGFZ moored array complemented other moored arrays being maintained by German scientists just west of the CGFZ (Pressure Inverted Echo Sounders, or PIES) and the Faraday Fracture Zone (current meter and microcat moorings). A set of eight moorings were set up across the CGFZ to measure the intermediate and deep water variability for a two-year period, from a depth of 500 m to the ocean floor. The moorings held a total of three McClane Moored Profilers (MMPs), 10 Nortek and 18 Aanderaa current meters, and 36 Seabird MicroCATs, deployed from 18-20 August 2010 through 28-30 June 2012. This yielded a nearly two-year record of velocity, temperature, salinity and pressure. The MMPs profiled every five days, and resulted in a high-resolution time series of temperature, salinity, pressure and velocity data across the interface between the generally eastward flowing Labrador Sea Water carried underneath the North Atlantic Current, and the westward flowing deep Iceland-Scotland Overflow Water.
  • Technical Report
    Overturning of the Subpolar North Atlantic Program (OSNAP): RAFOS Float Data Report June 2014 - January 2019
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 2020-12) Ramsey, Andree L. ; Furey, Heather H. ; Bower, Amy S.
    The Overturning in the Subpolar North Atlantic Program (OSNAP) is an international effort started in 2014 dedicated to achieving a better understanding of the link between dense-water formation and the meridional overturning circulation in the high-latitude North Atlantic. Moorings, gliders, and subsurface acoustically-tracked RAFOS floats have been used to collect temperature, salinity, and current data across the Labrador Sea, Irminger Sea, Reykjanes Ridge, Iceland Basin, Rockall-Hatton Plateau, and Rockall Trough. The specific objective of the OSNAP float program is to gather information on the pathways of the dense overflow waters transported by the deep limb of the overturning circulation and assess the connection of those pathways with currents observed crossing the OSNAP mooring line. This data report details the observations collected by 148 floats that were deployed for OSNAP during the summers of 2014, 2015, 2016 and 2017. Deployment locations were in the Iceland Basin, Irminger Sea, and in the Charlie-Gibbs Fracture Zone. Mission lengths ranged from 540-730 days, and the floats were ballasted to passively drift at a fixed pressure of either 1800, 2000, 2200, 2500, or 2800 dbar to tag the deep overflow water masses of the subpolar North Atlantic (Iceland-Scotland and Denmark Strait Overflow Waters).
  • Technical Report
    Impact of Irminger Rings on Deep Convection in the Labrador Sea : mooring instrument, cruise CTD, and APEX data report September 2007 – September 2009
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 2013-05) Furey, Heather H. ; McKee, Theresa K. ; de Jong, Marieke F. ; Robbins, Paul E. ; Bower, Amy S.
    This is the final data report of all hydrographic station, mooring, and subsurface float data collected by the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution in 2007-2009 during the Impact of Irminger Rings on Deep Convection in the Labrador Sea experiment (IRINGS). The objectives of IRINGS were to (1) to determine the full water column hydrographic and velocity structure of newlyformed Irminger Rings that have entered the interior Labrador Sea; (2) to observe how Irminger Ring core properties are modified by atmospheric forcing over their lifetime; and (3) to improve the interpretation of sea surface height (SSH) anomalies in terms of newly formed coherent heat containing Irminger Rings. The mooring deployment and recovery cruises were both on the R/V Knorr: KN192-01 in September 2007 and KN196-01 in September 2009, respectively. The single mooring held eight Aanderaa current meters (RCM-11), two Submerged Autonomous Launch Platforms (SALPs), and nine Seabird microcats (SBE37), deployed from 26 September 2007 through 27 September 2009, yeilding full water column (100-3000 meters) records of temperature, salinity, pressure, and velocity data for the two year period. The two SALP cages contained eleven APEX floats, and released some of these floats according to local oceanographic conditions, so as to seed the floats in passing Irminger Rings, and the remainder of floats as timed releases. Thirteen conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) stations were taken on the mooring recovery cruise, creating a boundary current cross-section from the mooring site to Nuuk, Greenland.
  • Technical Report
    Overturning of the Subpolar North Atlantic Program (OSNAP): RAFOS Float Data Report June 2014 - January 2019
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 2020-12) Ramsey, Andree L. ; Furey, Heather H. ; Bower, Amy S.
    The Overturning in the Subpolar North Atlantic Program (OSNAP) is an international effort started in 2014 dedicated to achieving a better understanding of the link between dense-water formation and the meridional overturning circulation in the high-latitude North Atlantic. Moorings, gliders, and subsurface acoustically-tracked RAFOS floats have been used to collect temperature, salinity, and current data across the Labrador Sea, Irminger Sea, Reykjanes Ridge, Iceland Basin, Rockall-Hatton Plateau, and Rockall Trough. The specific objective of the OSNAP float program is to gather information on the pathways of the dense overflow waters transported by the deep limb of the overturning circulation and assess the connection of those pathways with currents observed crossing the OSNAP mooring line. This data report details the observations collected by 148 floats that were deployed for OSNAP during the summers of 2014, 2015, 2016 and 2017. Deployment locations were in the Iceland Basin, Irminger Sea, and in the Charlie-Gibbs Fracture Zone. Mission lengths ranged from 540-730 days, and the floats were ballasted to passively drift at a fixed pressure of either 1800, 2000, 2200, 2500, or 2800 dbar to tag the deep overflow water masses of the subpolar North Atlantic (Iceland-Scotland and Denmark Strait Overflow Waters).
  • Technical Report
    Bight Fracture Zone Experiment: Moored Instrument Data Report, July 2015 - July 2017
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 2024-04) Furey, Heather H. ; Ramsey, Andree L. ; Bower, Amy S.
    This document describes the steps used for the initial processing of the Bight Fracture Zone mooring data, collected between July 2015 – July 2017. The data were collected using SBE MicroCATs and Nobska MAVS- 4 Acoustic Current Meters. The initial processing for both the MicroCAT and MAVS-4 consisted of removing data collected while out of water, replacing data outliers with NaNs, and correcting drifts in the data. In addition, the MAVS-4 data were transformed from instrument coordinates to earth coordinates and magnetic declination was correction was applied.
  • Technical Report
    R/V Oceanus Voyage 449-6 Red Sea Atlantis II Deep Complex Area 19 October–1 November 2008
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 2009-07) Bower, Amy S.
    The purpose of this report is to summarize the research activities conducted during R/V Oceanus Voyage 449-6 (also referred to as KAUST Leg 2) in the Red Sea. The cruise began on 19 October 2008 at 1700 Local Time (LT), when the R/V Oceanus departed Jeddah Commercial Port. On the cruise were 15 scientists from five countries, including Saudi Arabia, United States, Egypt, Hong Kong and Sudan. The cruise ended on 1 November 2008 when the Oceanus returned to the Jeddah Commercial Port.
  • Technical Report
    The Deep Water Dispersion Experiment: RAFOS float data report June 2016 - January 2019
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 2019-12) Ramsey, Andree L. ; Furey, Heather H. ; Bower, Amy S. ; Pérez-Brunius, Paula ; García-Carrillo, Paula
    This is the final data report for all acoustically-tracked subsurface RAFOS floats deployed for the “Deep Water Dispersion Experiment: RAFOS Float Study in Support of Analysis of Possible Consequences of Large Scale Oil-Spills under Various Scenarios” (DWDE). This study is part of the larger program “Deep and Shallow Particle Dispersion and Biological Connectivity over the Continental Slope in the Western Gulf of Mexico”, of the Gulf of Mexico Research Consortium (CIGoM). The objective of the DWDE project was to measure and evaluate the ocean circulation at various depths in order to estimate the rates and pathways by which a passive tracer (e.g. pollutant, nutrients, etc.) would spread. The experiment consisted of the deployment 93 RAFOS floats and five sound source moorings (needed for tracking the floats underwater) over the course of five cruises, between June 2016 and January 2019, in the Perdido region of the Gulf of Mexico. The floats were deployed nearly simultaneously at stacked depths of 300 and 1500 dbar, in sets of 2-4 instruments per station, for calculating dispersion statistics. Mission lengths for the floats were set to ~12 to 18 months. Included in this report are cruise summaries, statistics and notes on sound source and float performance, sound source drift calculations, description of the RAFOS float data processing steps, and figures.