Bower Amy S.

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Last Name
Bower
First Name
Amy S.
ORCID
0000-0003-0902-4984

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Now showing 1 - 18 of 18
  • Article
    Observed deep cyclonic eddies around Southern Greenland
    (American Meteorological Society, 2021-10-01) Zou, Sijia ; Bower, Amy S. ; Furey, Heather H. ; Pickart, Robert S. ; Houpert, Loïc ; Holliday, Naomi Penny
    Recent mooring measurements from the Overturning in the Subpolar North Atlantic Program have revealed abundant cyclonic eddies at both sides of Cape Farewell, the southern tip of Greenland. In this study, we present further observational evidence, from both Eulerian and Lagrangian perspectives, of deep cyclonic eddies with intense rotation (ζ/f > 1) around southern Greenland and into the Labrador Sea. Most of the observed cyclones exhibit strongest rotation below the surface at 700–1000 dbar, where maximum azimuthal velocities are ~30 cm s−1 at radii of ~10 km, with rotational periods of 2–3 days. The cyclonic rotation can extend to the deep overflow water layer (below 1800 dbar), albeit with weaker azimuthal velocities (~10 cm s−1) and longer rotational periods of about one week. Within the middepth rotation cores, the cyclones are in near solid-body rotation and have the potential to trap and transport water. The first high-resolution hydrographic transect across such a cyclone indicates that it is characterized by a local (both vertically and horizontally) potential vorticity maximum in its middepth core and cold, fresh anomalies in the deep overflow water layer, suggesting its source as the Denmark Strait outflow. Additionally, the propagation and evolution of the cyclonic eddies are illustrated with deep Lagrangian floats, including their detachments from the boundary currents to the basin interior. Taken together, the combined Eulerian and Lagrangian observations have provided new insights on the boundary current variability and boundary–interior exchange over a geographically large scale near southern Greenland, calling for further investigations on the (sub)mesoscale dynamics in the region.
  • Article
    A Deep Water Dispersion Experiment in the Gulf of Mexico
    (American Geophysical Union, 2021-09-18) Meunier, Thomas ; Pérez-Brunius, Paula ; Rodríguez Outerelo, Javier ; García-Carrillo, Paula ; Ronquillo-Mendez, Argelia ; Furey, Heather H. ; Ramsey, Andree L. ; Bower, Amy S.
    The Deep Water Horizon oil spill dramatically impacted the Gulf of Mexico from the seafloor to the surface. While dispersion of contaminants at the surface has been extensively studied, little is known about deep water dispersion properties. This study describes the results of the Deep Water Dispersion Experiment (DWDE), which consisted of the release of surface drifters and acoustically tracked RAFOS floats drifting at 300 and 1,500 dbar in the Gulf of Mexico. We show that surface diffusivity is elevated and decreases with depth: on average, diffusivity at 1,500 dbar is 5 times smaller than at the surface, suggesting that the dispersion of contaminants at depth is a significantly slower process than at the surface. This study also examines the turbulent regimes driving the dispersion, although conflicting evidences and large uncertainties do not allow definitive conclusions. At all depths, while the growth of dispersion and kurtosis with time supports the possibility of an exponential regime at very short time scales, indicating that early dispersion is nonlocal, finite size Lyapunov exponents support the hypothesis of local dispersion, suggesting that eddies of size comparable to the initial separation (6 km), may dominate the early dispersion. At longer time scales, the quadratic growth of dispersion is indicative of a ballistic regime, where a mean shear flow would be the dominating process. Examination of the along- and across-bathymetry components of float velocities supports the idea that boundary currents could be the source for this shear dispersion.
  • Article
    The dynamical structure of a warm core ring as I\inferred from glider observations and along-track altimetry
    (MDPI, 2021-06-23) Meunier, Thomas ; Pallás-Sanz, Enric ; de Marez, Charly ; Pérez, Juan ; Tenreiro, Miguel ; Ruiz-Angulo, Angel ; Bower, Amy S.
    This study investigates the vertical structure of the dynamical properties of a warm-core ring in the Gulf of Mexico (Loop Current ring) using glider observations. We introduce a new method to correct the glider’s along-track coordinate, which is, in general, biased by the unsteady relative movements of the glider and the eddy, yielding large errors on horizontal derivatives. Here, we take advantage of the synopticity of satellite along-track altimetry to apply corrections on the glider’s position by matching in situ steric height with satellite-measured sea surface height. This relocation method allows recovering the eddy’s azimuthal symmetry, precisely estimating the rotation axis position, and computing reliable horizontal derivatives. It is shown to be particularly appropriate to compute the eddy’s cyclo-geostrophic velocity, relative vorticity, and shear strain, which are otherwise out of reach when using the glider’s raw traveled distance as a horizontal coordinate. The Ertel potential vorticity (PV) structure of the warm core ring is studied in details, and we show that the PV anomaly is entirely controlled by vortex stretching. Sign reversal of the PV gradient across the water column suggests that the ring might be baroclinically unstable. The PV gradient is also largely controlled by gradients of the vortex stretching term. We also show that the ring’s total energy partition is strongly skewed, with available potential energy being 3 times larger than kinetic energy. The possible impact of this energy partition on the Loop Current rings longevity is also discussed.
  • Article
    Reconstructing the three-dimensional structure of loop current rings from satellite altimetry and in situ data using the gravest empirical modes method
    (MDPI, 2022-08-25) Meunier, Thomas ; Pérez-Brunius, Paula ; Bower, Amy S.
    The three-dimensional structure of Gulf of Mexico’s warm-core rings, detaching from the Loop Current, is investigated using satellite altimetry and a large set of ARGO float profiles. Reconstruction of the Loop Current rings (LCRs) vertical structure from sea surface height observations is made possible by the use of the gravest empirical modes method (GEM). The GEMs are transfer functions that associate a value of temperature and salinity for each variable pair {dynamic height; pressure}, and are computed by estimating an empirical relationship between dynamic height and the vertical thermohaline structure of the ocean. Between 1993 and 2021, 40 LCRs were detected in the altimetry and their three-dimensional thermohaline structure was reconstructed, as well as a number of dynamically relevant variables (geostrophic and cyclogeostrophic velocity, relative vorticity, potential vorticity, available potential energy and kinetic energy density, etc.). The structure of a typical LCR was computed by fitting an analytical stream function to the LCRs dynamic height signature and reconstructing its vertical structure with the GEM. The total heat and salt contents and energy of each LCR were computed and their cumulative effect on the Gulf of Mexico’s heat, salt and energy balance is discussed. We show that LCRs have a dramatic impact on these balances and estimate that residual surface heat fluxes of −13 W m−2 are necessary to compensate their heat input, while the fresh water outflow of the Mississippi river approximately compensates for their salt excess input. An average energy dissipation of O [10−10–10−9] W kg−1 would be necessary to balance their energy input.
  • Article
    Overflow Water pathways in the North Atlantic
    (Elsevier, 2022-09-09) Lozier, M. Susan ; Bower, Amy S. ; Furey, Heather H. ; Drouin, Kimberley L. ; Xu, Xiaobiao ; Zou, Sijia
    As part of the international Overturning in the Subpolar North Atlantic Program (OSNAP), 135 acoustically-tracked deep floats were deployed to track the spreading pathways of Iceland-Scotland Overflow Water (ISOW) and Denmark Strait Overflow Water (DSOW) from 2014 to 2018. These water masses, which originate in the Nordic Seas, are transported by the deepest branch of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). The OSNAP floats provide the first directly-observed, comprehensive Lagrangian view of ISOW and DSOW spreading pathways throughout the subpolar North Atlantic. The collection of OSNAP float trajectories, complemented by model simulations, reveals that their pathways are (a) not restricted to western boundary currents, and (b) remarkably different from each other in character. The spread of DSOW from the Irminger Sea is primarily via the swift deep boundary currents of the Irminger and Labrador Seas, whereas the spread of ISOW out of the Iceland Basin is slower and along multiple export pathways. The characterization of these Overflow Water pathways has important implications for our understanding of the AMOC and its variability. Finally, reconstructions of AMOC variability from proxy data, involving either the strength of boundary currents and/or the property variability of deep waters, should account for the myriad pathways of DSOW and ISOW, but particularly so for the latter.
  • Article
    Redrawing the Iceland−Scotland overflow water pathways in the North Atlantic
    (Nature Research, 2020-04-20) Zou, Sijia ; Bower, Amy S. ; Furey, Heather H. ; Lozier, M. Susan ; Xu, Xiaobiao
    Iceland-Scotland Overflow Water (ISOW) is a primary deep water mass exported from the Norwegian Sea into the North Atlantic as part of the global Meridional Overturning Circulation. ISOW has historically been depicted as flowing counter-clockwise in a deep boundary current around the subpolar North Atlantic, but this single-boundary-following pathway is being challenged by new Lagrangian observations and model simulations. We show here that ISOW leaves the boundary and spreads into the interior towards the central Labrador and Irminger basins after flowing through the Charlie-Gibbs Fracture Zone. We also describe a newly observed southward pathway of ISOW along the western flank of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. The partitioning of these pathways is shown to be influenced by deep-reaching eddies and meanders of the North Atlantic Current. Our results, in tandem with previous studies, call for a revision in the historical depiction of ISOW pathways throughout the North Atlantic.
  • Article
    Lagrangian perspective on the origins of Denmark Strait Overflow
    (American Meteorological Society, 2020-08-01) Saberi, Atousa ; Haine, Thomas W. N. ; Gelderloos, Renske ; de Jong, Marieke Femke ; Furey, Heather H. ; Bower, Amy S.
    The Denmark Strait Overflow (DSO) is an important contributor to the lower limb of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC). Determining DSO formation and its pathways is not only important for local oceanography but also critical to estimating the state and variability of the AMOC. Despite prior attempts to understand the DSO sources, its upstream pathways and circulation remain uncertain due to short-term (3–5 days) variability. This makes it challenging to study the DSO from observations. Given this complexity, this study maps the upstream pathways and along-pathway changes in its water properties, using Lagrangian backtracking of the DSO sources in a realistic numerical ocean simulation. The Lagrangian pathways confirm that several branches contribute to the DSO from the north such as the East Greenland Current (EGC), the separated EGC (sEGC), and the North Icelandic Jet (NIJ). Moreover, the model results reveal additional pathways from south of Iceland, which supplied over 16% of the DSO annually and over 25% of the DSO during winter of 2008, when the NAO index was positive. The southern contribution is about 34% by the end of March. The southern pathways mark a more direct route from the near-surface subpolar North Atlantic to the North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW), and needs to be explored further, with in situ observations.
  • Technical Report
    Overturning of the Subpolar North Atlantic Program (OSNAP): RAFOS Float Data Report June 2014 - January 2019
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 2020-12) Ramsey, Andree L. ; Furey, Heather H. ; Bower, Amy S.
    The Overturning in the Subpolar North Atlantic Program (OSNAP) is an international effort started in 2014 dedicated to achieving a better understanding of the link between dense-water formation and the meridional overturning circulation in the high-latitude North Atlantic. Moorings, gliders, and subsurface acoustically-tracked RAFOS floats have been used to collect temperature, salinity, and current data across the Labrador Sea, Irminger Sea, Reykjanes Ridge, Iceland Basin, Rockall-Hatton Plateau, and Rockall Trough. The specific objective of the OSNAP float program is to gather information on the pathways of the dense overflow waters transported by the deep limb of the overturning circulation and assess the connection of those pathways with currents observed crossing the OSNAP mooring line. This data report details the observations collected by 148 floats that were deployed for OSNAP during the summers of 2014, 2015, 2016 and 2017. Deployment locations were in the Iceland Basin, Irminger Sea, and in the Charlie-Gibbs Fracture Zone. Mission lengths ranged from 540-730 days, and the floats were ballasted to passively drift at a fixed pressure of either 1800, 2000, 2200, 2500, or 2800 dbar to tag the deep overflow water masses of the subpolar North Atlantic (Iceland-Scotland and Denmark Strait Overflow Waters).
  • Article
    Labrador Sea Water transport across the Charlie-Gibbs Fracture Zone
    (American Geophysical Union, 2020-07-03) Gonçalves Neto, Afonso ; Palter, Jaime B. ; Bower, Amy S. ; Furey, Heather H. ; Xu, Xiaobiao
    Labrador Sea Water (LSW) is a major component of the deep limb of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation, yet LSW transport pathways and their variability lack a complete description. A portion of the LSW exported from the subpolar gyre is advected eastward along the North Atlantic Current and must contend with the Mid‐Atlantic Ridge before reaching the eastern basins of the North Atlantic. Here, we analyze observations from a mooring array and satellite altimetry, together with outputs from a hindcast ocean model simulation, to estimate the mean transport of LSW across the Charlie‐Gibbs Fracture Zone (CGFZ), a primary gateway for the eastward transport of the water mass. The LSW transport estimated from the 25‐year altimetry record is 5.3 ± 2.9 Sv, where the error represents the combination of observational variability and the uncertainty in the projection of the surface velocities to the LSW layer. Current velocities modulate the interannual to higher‐frequency variability of the LSW transport at the CGFZ, while the LSW thickness becomes important on longer time scales. The modeled mean LSW transport for 1993–2012 is higher than the estimate from altimetry, at 8.2 ± 4.1 Sv. The modeled LSW thickness decreases substantially at the CGFZ between 1996 and 2009, consistent with an observed decline in LSW volume in the Labrador Sea after 1994. We suggest that satellite altimetry and continuous hydrographic measurements in the central Labrador Sea, supplemented by profiles from Argo floats, could be sufficient to quantify the LSW transport at the CGFZ.
  • Article
    Assessment of numerical simulations of deep circulation and variability in the Gulf of Mexico using recent observations
    (American Meteorological Society, 2020-04-08) Morey, Steven L. ; Gopalakrishnan, Ganesh ; Pallás-Sanz, Enric ; Azevedo Correia De Souza, Joao Marcos ; Donohue, Kathleen A. ; Pérez-Brunius, Paula ; Dukhovskoy, Dmitry S. ; Chassignet, Eric P. ; Cornuelle, Bruce D. ; Bower, Amy S. ; Furey, Heather H. ; Hamilton, Peter ; Candela, Julio
    Three simulations of the circulation in the Gulf of Mexico (the “Gulf”) using different numerical general circulation models are compared with results of recent large-scale observational campaigns conducted throughout the deep (>1500 m) Gulf. Analyses of these observations have provided new understanding of large-scale mean circulation features and variability throughout the deep Gulf. Important features include cyclonic flow along the continental slope, deep cyclonic circulation in the western Gulf, a counterrotating pair of cells under the Loop Current region, and a cyclonic cell to the south of this pair. These dominant circulation features are represented in each of the ocean model simulations, although with some obvious differences. A striking difference between all the models and the observations is that the simulated deep eddy kinetic energy under the Loop Current region is generally less than one-half of that computed from observations. A multidecadal integration of one of these numerical simulations is used to evaluate the uncertainty of estimates of velocity statistics in the deep Gulf computed from limited-length (4 years) observational or model records. This analysis shows that the main deep circulation features identified from the observational studies appear to be robust and are not substantially impacted by variability on time scales longer than the observational records. Differences in strengths and structures of the circulation features are identified, however, and quantified through standard error analysis of the statistical estimates using the model solutions.
  • Article
    Subpolar North Atlantic western boundary density anomalies and the Meridional Overturning Circulation
    (Nature Research, 2021-05-24) Li, Feili ; Lozier, M. Susan ; Bacon, Sheldon ; Bower, Amy S. ; Cunningham, Stuart A. ; de Jong, Marieke F. ; deYoung, Brad ; Fraser, Neil ; Fried, Nora ; Han, Guoqi ; Holliday, Naomi Penny ; Holte, James W. ; Houpert, Loïc ; Inall, Mark E. ; Johns, William E. ; Jones, Sam ; Johnson, Clare ; Karstensen, Johannes ; Le Bras, Isabela A. ; Lherminier, Pascale ; Lin, Xiaopei ; Mercier, Herlé ; Oltmanns, Marilena ; Pacini, Astrid ; Petit, Tillys ; Pickart, Robert S. ; Rayner, Darren ; Straneo, Fiamma ; Thierry, Virginie ; Visbeck, Martin ; Yashayaev, Igor ; Zhou, Chun
    Changes in the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation, which have the potential to drive societally-important climate impacts, have traditionally been linked to the strength of deep water formation in the subpolar North Atlantic. Yet there is neither clear observational evidence nor agreement among models about how changes in deep water formation influence overturning. Here, we use data from a trans-basin mooring array (OSNAP—Overturning in the Subpolar North Atlantic Program) to show that winter convection during 2014–2018 in the interior basin had minimal impact on density changes in the deep western boundary currents in the subpolar basins. Contrary to previous modeling studies, we find no discernable relationship between western boundary changes and subpolar overturning variability over the observational time scales. Our results require a reconsideration of the notion of deep western boundary changes representing overturning characteristics, with implications for constraining the source of overturning variability within and downstream of the subpolar region.
  • Article
    Deep ocean circulation in the subpolar North Atlantic observed by acoustically-tracked floats
    (Elsevier, 2023-02-03) Zou, Sijia ; Bower, Amy S. ; Lozier, M. Susan ; Furey, Heather H.
    Large-scale deep circulation pathways in the subpolar North Atlantic. Deep eddy kinetic energy distribution in the subpolar North Atlantic.•Acoustically tracked subsurface float observations.The deep circulation in the subpolar North Atlantic determines the spread and mixing of high latitude climate signals to lower latitudes. However, our current understanding of the subpolar deep circulation has been limited due to relatively sparse observational data. To improve that understanding, we construct gridded fields of mean velocity and eddy kinetic energy (EKE) in the deep (1800–2800 dbar) subpolar North Atlantic using direct velocity measurements from 122 subsurface acoustically-tracked floats that drifted during June 2014–January 2019. The mean velocity field reveals a relatively strong deep boundary current around Greenland and in the Labrador Sea, with a weaker deep boundary current over the eastern flank of the Reykjanes Ridge, and near-zero mean flow over the western flank, implying a discontinuous deep boundary current across the subpolar basin. The deep EKE, albeit with smaller magnitudes, generally resembles the EKE pattern at the ocean surface, including relatively high values along pathways of the North Atlantic Current and west of Greenland where the Irminger Rings are formed. A surprising finding about deep EKE is an elevated band east of Greenland that parallels the coast and is not present in the surface EKE field. This high EKE band is possibly attributed to the combined influence from propagating Denmark Strait Overflow Cyclones, variability of the wind-driven recirculation offshore of southeast Greenland, and/or topographic waves. The float-based flow fields constructed in this study provide an unprecedented quantitative view of the kinematic properties of the large-scale deep circulation in the subpolar North Atlantic. Combined with cross-basin Eulerian measurements, we believe these recent observations provide a benchmark for testing and improving numerical simulations of deep ocean circulation and the Meridional Overturning Circulation, which are urgently needed for climate change predictions.
  • Technical Report
    Overturning of the Subpolar North Atlantic Program (OSNAP): RAFOS Float Data Report June 2014 - January 2019
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 2020-12) Ramsey, Andree L. ; Furey, Heather H. ; Bower, Amy S.
    The Overturning in the Subpolar North Atlantic Program (OSNAP) is an international effort started in 2014 dedicated to achieving a better understanding of the link between dense-water formation and the meridional overturning circulation in the high-latitude North Atlantic. Moorings, gliders, and subsurface acoustically-tracked RAFOS floats have been used to collect temperature, salinity, and current data across the Labrador Sea, Irminger Sea, Reykjanes Ridge, Iceland Basin, Rockall-Hatton Plateau, and Rockall Trough. The specific objective of the OSNAP float program is to gather information on the pathways of the dense overflow waters transported by the deep limb of the overturning circulation and assess the connection of those pathways with currents observed crossing the OSNAP mooring line. This data report details the observations collected by 148 floats that were deployed for OSNAP during the summers of 2014, 2015, 2016 and 2017. Deployment locations were in the Iceland Basin, Irminger Sea, and in the Charlie-Gibbs Fracture Zone. Mission lengths ranged from 540-730 days, and the floats were ballasted to passively drift at a fixed pressure of either 1800, 2000, 2200, 2500, or 2800 dbar to tag the deep overflow water masses of the subpolar North Atlantic (Iceland-Scotland and Denmark Strait Overflow Waters).
  • Dataset
    Overturning in the Subpolar North Atlantic Program (OSNAP) moored current meter, temperature, conductivity, salinity, and pressure data collected on subsurface moorings M1, M2, M3, and M4 between June 2018 and August 2020
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 2023-06-07) Bower, Amy S. ; Straneo, Fiamma ; Furey, Heather H. ; Biló, Tiago C. ; Bahr, Frank B.
    As part of the Overturning in the Subpolar North Atlantic Program (OSNAP), four mooring arrays were deployed in the Greenland Deep Western Boundary Current (GDWBC) located off the east coast of Greenland, in the Irminger Sea. The array consisted of four subsurface moorings M1, M2, M3, and M4, containing 30 MicroCATs and 18 Aquadopp Current Meters, and deployed between June 2018 and August 2020. The data sets are timeseries of temperature, conductivity, pressure, and salinity recorded at 15-minute intervals and current meter data collected at 30-minute intervals. The depths of the moorings were 2086 meters, 2436 meters, 2557 meters, and 2984 meters respectively. The data have been fully processed, calibrated, and quality controlled.
  • Dataset
    Bight Fracture Zone Experiment Moored Instrument Data
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 2024-03-25) Furey, Heather H. ; Ramsey, Andree L. ; Bower, Amy S.
    Two 2-year moorings were placed in the Bight Fracture Zone (BFZ), one in the north channel and one in the south channel, between July 2015 to July 2017. Each mooring was instrumented at four depths with a pair of instruments comprised of an SBE MicroCAT and a Nobska MAVS-4 Acoustic Current Meter. The four pairs of instruments were placed at 1500, 1750, 2000 meters depth and 22 meters above the bottom of the channel (2440 meters depth in the north channel and 2115 meters depth in the south channel). The initial processing for both the MicroCAT and MAVS-4 consisted of removing data collected while out of water, replacing data outliers with NaNs, and correcting drifts in the data. In addition, the MAVS-4 data were transformed from instrument coordinates to earth coordinates and magnetic declination was correction was applied.
  • Technical Report
    Bight Fracture Zone Experiment: Moored Instrument Data Report, July 2015 - July 2017
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 2024-04) Furey, Heather H. ; Ramsey, Andree L. ; Bower, Amy S.
    This document describes the steps used for the initial processing of the Bight Fracture Zone mooring data, collected between July 2015 – July 2017. The data were collected using SBE MicroCATs and Nobska MAVS- 4 Acoustic Current Meters. The initial processing for both the MicroCAT and MAVS-4 consisted of removing data collected while out of water, replacing data outliers with NaNs, and correcting drifts in the data. In addition, the MAVS-4 data were transformed from instrument coordinates to earth coordinates and magnetic declination was correction was applied.
  • Article
    Seasonality of the Meridional Overturning Circulation in the subpolar North Atlantic
    (Nature Research, 2023-05-25) Fu, Yao ; Lozier, M Susan ; Biló, Tiago Carrilho ; Bower, Amy S. ; Cunningham, Stuart A. ; Cyr, Frédéric ; de Jong, M. Femke ; deYoung, Brad ; Drysdale, Lewis ; Fraser, Neil ; Fried, Nora ; Furey, Heather H. ; Han, Guoqi ; Handmann, Patricia ; Holliday, N. Penny ; Holte, James ; Inall, Mark E. ; Johns, William E. ; Jones, Sam ; Karstensen, Johannes ; Li, Feili ; Pacini, Astrid ; Pickart, Robert S. ; Rayner, Darren ; Straneo, Fiammetta ; Yashayaev, Igor
    Understanding the variability of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation is essential for better predictions of our changing climate. Here we present an updated time series (August 2014 to June 2020) from the Overturning in the Subpolar North Atlantic Program. The 6-year time series allows us to observe the seasonality of the subpolar overturning and meridional heat and freshwater transports. The overturning peaks in late spring and reaches a minimum in early winter, with a peak-to-trough range of 9.0 Sv. The overturning seasonal timing can be explained by winter transformation and the export of dense water, modulated by a seasonally varying Ekman transport. Furthermore, over 55% of the total meridional freshwater transport variability can be explained by its seasonality, largely owing to overturning dynamics. Our results provide the first observational analysis of seasonality in the subpolar North Atlantic overturning and highlight its important contribution to the total overturning variability observed to date.
  • Dataset
    Greenland Deep Western Boundary Current (GDWBC) Mooring Data 2020-2022
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 2024-05-01) Houk, Adam ; Bower, Amy S.
    The Greenland Deep Western Boundary Current (GDWBC) mooring array is part of the Overturning in the Subpolar North Atlantic Project (OSNAP). The mooring array consists of four moorings instrumented with SeaBird 37 MicroCATs and Nortek Aquadopp Current Meters with the goal of 1) better defining the range of DWBC transport variability up to interannual time scales from continuous multi-year time series of velocity, temperature, and salinity, 2) identifying the causes of DWBC transport and water mass variability on multiple time scales, including connections to the dense overflows upstream, and 3) assessing DWBC continuity and connectivity around Cape Farewell and to the western boundary of the Subpolar North Atlantic. These moorings were deployed August 2020 to July 2022.