Bowles Julie A.
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ArticlePaleointensity applications to timing and extent of eruptive activity, 9°–10°N East Pacific Rise(American Geophysical Union, 2006-06-08) Bowles, Julie A. ; Gee, Jeffrey S. ; Kent, Dennis V. ; Perfit, Michael R. ; Soule, Samuel A. ; Fornari, Daniel J.Placing accurate age constraints on near-axis lava flows has become increasingly important given the structural and volcanic complexity of the neovolcanic zone at fast spreading ridges. Geomagnetic paleointensity of submarine basaltic glass (SBG) holds promise for placing quantitative age constraints on near-axis flows. In one of the first extensive tests of paleointensity as a dating tool or temporal marker we present the results of over 550 successful SBG paleointensity estimates from 189 near-axis (<4 km) sites at the East Pacific Rise, 9°–10°N. Paleointensities range from 6 to 53 μT and spatially correspond to the pattern expected from known temporal variations in the geomagnetic field. Samples within and adjacent to the axial summit trough (AST) have values approximately equal to or slightly higher than the present-day. Samples out to 1–3 km from the AST have values higher than the present-day, and samples farther off axis have values lower than the present-day. The on-axis samples (<500 m from the AST) provide a test case for using models of paleofield variation for the past few hundred years as an absolute dating technique. Results from samples collected near a well-documented eruption in 1991–1992 suggest there may be a small negative bias in the paleointensity estimates, limiting resolution of the dating technique. Possible explanations for such a bias include local field anomalies produced by preexisting magnetic terrain; anomalously high magnetic unblocking temperatures, leading to a small cooling rate bias; and/or the possibility of a chemical remanence produced by in situ alteration of samples likely to have complicated thermal histories. Paleointensity remains useful in approximating age differences in young flows, and a clear along-axis paleointensity contrast near 9°50′N is suggestive of a ∼150–200 year age difference. Paleointensity values of off-axis samples are generally consistent with rough age interpretations based on side scan data. Furthermore, spatial patterns in the paleointensity suggest extensive off-axis flow emplacement may occur infrequently, with recurrence intervals of 10–20 kyr. Results of a stochastic model of lava emplacement show that this can be achieved with a single distribution of flows, with flow size linked to time between eruptions.
ArticleDynamic accretion beneath a slow-spreading ridge segment: IODP hole 1473A and the Atlantis Bank oceanic core complex(American Geophysical Union, 2019-11-07) Dick, Henry J. B. ; MacLeod, Christopher J. ; Blum, Peter ; Abe, Natsue ; Blackman, Donna K. ; Bowles, Julie A. ; Cheadle, Michael J. ; Cho, K. ; Ciazela, Jakub ; Deans, Jeremy ; Edgcomb, Virginia P. ; Ferrando, Carlotta ; France, Lydéric ; Ghosh, Biswajit ; Ildefonse, Benoit ; John, Barbara E. ; Kendrick, Mark A. ; Koepke, Juergen ; Leong, James ; Liu, Chuanzhou ; Ma, Qiang ; Morishita, Tomoaki ; Morris, Antony ; Natland, James H. ; Nozaka, Toshio ; Pluemper, Oliver ; Sanfilippo, Alessio ; Sylvan, Jason B. ; Tivey, Maurice A. ; Tribuzio, Riccardo ; Viegas, G.809 deep IODP Hole U1473A at Atlantis Bank, SWIR, is 2.2 km from 1,508‐m Hole 735B and 1.4 from 158‐m Hole 1105A. With mapping, it provides the first 3‐D view of the upper levels of a 660‐km2 lower crustal batholith. It is laterally and vertically zoned, representing a complex interplay of cyclic intrusion, and ongoing deformation, with kilometer‐scale upward and lateral migration of interstial melt. Transform wall dives over the gabbro‐peridotite contact found only evolved gabbro intruded directly into the mantle near the transform. There was no high‐level melt lens, rather the gabbros crystallized at depth, and then emplaced into the zone of diking by diapiric rise of a crystal mush followed by crystal‐plastic deformation and faulting. The residues to mass balance the crust to a parent melt composition lie at depth below the center of the massif—likely near the crust‐mantle boundary. Thus, basalts erupted to the seafloor from >1,550 mbsf. By contrast, the Mid‐Atlantic Ridge lower crust drilled at 23°N and at Atlantis Massif experienced little high‐temperature deformation and limited late‐stage melt transport. They contain primitive cumulates and represent direct intrusion, storage, and crystallization of parental MORB in thinner crust below the dike‐gabbro transition. The strong asymmetric spreading of the SWIR to the south was due to fault capture, with the northern rift valley wall faults cutoff by a detachment fault that extended across most of the zone of intrusion. This caused rapid migration of the plate boundary to the north, while the large majority of the lower crust to spread south unroofing Atlantis Bank and uplifting it into the rift mountains.
ArticleMagnetic mineral populations in lower oceanic crustal gabbros (Atlantis Bank, SW Indian Ridge): implications for marine magnetic anomalies(American Geophysical Union, 2020-02-28) Bowles, Julie A. ; Morris, Antony ; Tivey, Maurice A. ; Lascu, IoanTo learn more about magnetic properties of the lower ocean crust and its contributions to marine magnetic anomalies, gabbro samples were collected from International Ocean Discovery Program Hole U1473A at Atlantis Bank on the Southwest Indian Ridge. Detailed magnetic property work links certain magnetic behaviors and domain states to specific magnetic mineral populations. Measurements on whole rocks and mineral separates included magnetic hysteresis, first‐order reversal curves, low‐temperature remanence measurements, thermomagnetic analysis, and magnetic force microscopy. Characteristics of the thermomagnetic data indicate that the upper ~500 m of the hole has undergone hydrothermal alteration. The thermomagnetic and natural remanent magnetization data are consistent with earlier observations from Hole 735B that show remanence arises from low‐Ti magnetite and that natural remanent magnetizations are up to 25 A m−1 in evolved Fe‐Ti oxide gabbros, but are mostly <1 A m−1. Magnetite is present in at least three forms. Primary magnetite is associated with coarse‐grained oxides that are more frequent in the upper part of the hole. This magnetic population is linked to dominantly “pseudo‐single‐domain” behavior that arises from fine‐scale lamellar intergrowths within the large oxides. Deeper in the hole the magnetic signal is more commonly dominated by an interacting single‐domain assemblage most likely found along crystal discontinuities in olivine and/or pyroxene. A third contribution is from noninteracting single‐domain inclusions within plagioclase. Because the concentration of the highly magnetic, oxide‐rich gabbros is greatest toward the surface, the signal from coarse oxides will likely dominate the near‐bottom magnetic anomaly signal at Atlantis Bank.
ArticleEffects of variable magma supply on mid-ocean ridge eruptions : constraints from mapped lava flow fields along the Galápagos Spreading Center(American Geophysical Union, 2012-08-25) Colman, Alice ; Sinton, John M. ; White, Scott M. ; McClinton, J. Timothy ; Bowles, Julie A. ; Rubin, Kenneth H. ; Behn, Mark D. ; Cushman, Buffy ; Eason, Deborah E. ; Gregg, Tracy K. P. ; Gronvold, Karl ; Hidalgo, Silvana ; Howell, Julia ; Neill, Owen ; Russo, ChrisMapping and sampling of 18 eruptive units in two study areas along the Galápagos Spreading Center (GSC) provide insight into how magma supply affects mid-ocean ridge (MOR) volcanic eruptions. The two study areas have similar spreading rates (53 versus 55 mm/yr), but differ by 30% in the time-averaged rate of magma supply (0.3 × 106 versus 0.4 × 106 m3/yr/km). Detailed geologic maps of each study area incorporate observations of flow contacts and sediment thickness, in addition to sample petrology, geomagnetic paleointensity, and inferences from high-resolution bathymetry data. At the lower-magma-supply study area, eruptions typically produce irregularly shaped clusters of pillow mounds with total eruptive volumes ranging from 0.09 to 1.3 km3. At the higher-magma-supply study area, lava morphologies characteristic of higher effusion rates are more common, eruptions typically occur along elongated fissures, and eruptive volumes are an order of magnitude smaller (0.002–0.13 km3). At this site, glass MgO contents (2.7–8.4 wt. %) and corresponding liquidus temperatures are lower on average, and more variable, than those at the lower-magma-supply study area (6.2–9.1 wt. % MgO). The differences in eruptive volume, lava temperature, morphology, and inferred eruption rates observed between the two areas along the GSC are similar to those that have previously been related to variable spreading rates on the global MOR system. Importantly, the documentation of multiple sequences of eruptions at each study area, representing hundreds to thousands of years, provides constraints on the variability in eruptive style at a given magma supply and spreading rate.