Bowles Julie A.
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ArticleDynamic accretion beneath a slow-spreading ridge segment: IODP hole 1473A and the Atlantis Bank oceanic core complex(American Geophysical Union, 2019-11-07) Dick, Henry J. B. ; MacLeod, Christopher J. ; Blum, Peter ; Abe, Natsue ; Blackman, Donna K. ; Bowles, Julie A. ; Cheadle, Michael J. ; Cho, K. ; Ciazela, Jakub ; Deans, Jeremy ; Edgcomb, Virginia P. ; Ferrando, Carlotta ; France, Lydéric ; Ghosh, Biswajit ; Ildefonse, Benoit ; John, Barbara E. ; Kendrick, Mark A. ; Koepke, Juergen ; Leong, James ; Liu, Chuanzhou ; Ma, Qiang ; Morishita, Tomoaki ; Morris, Antony ; Natland, James H. ; Nozaka, Toshio ; Pluemper, Oliver ; Sanfilippo, Alessio ; Sylvan, Jason B. ; Tivey, Maurice A. ; Tribuzio, Riccardo ; Viegas, G.809 deep IODP Hole U1473A at Atlantis Bank, SWIR, is 2.2 km from 1,508‐m Hole 735B and 1.4 from 158‐m Hole 1105A. With mapping, it provides the first 3‐D view of the upper levels of a 660‐km2 lower crustal batholith. It is laterally and vertically zoned, representing a complex interplay of cyclic intrusion, and ongoing deformation, with kilometer‐scale upward and lateral migration of interstial melt. Transform wall dives over the gabbro‐peridotite contact found only evolved gabbro intruded directly into the mantle near the transform. There was no high‐level melt lens, rather the gabbros crystallized at depth, and then emplaced into the zone of diking by diapiric rise of a crystal mush followed by crystal‐plastic deformation and faulting. The residues to mass balance the crust to a parent melt composition lie at depth below the center of the massif—likely near the crust‐mantle boundary. Thus, basalts erupted to the seafloor from >1,550 mbsf. By contrast, the Mid‐Atlantic Ridge lower crust drilled at 23°N and at Atlantis Massif experienced little high‐temperature deformation and limited late‐stage melt transport. They contain primitive cumulates and represent direct intrusion, storage, and crystallization of parental MORB in thinner crust below the dike‐gabbro transition. The strong asymmetric spreading of the SWIR to the south was due to fault capture, with the northern rift valley wall faults cutoff by a detachment fault that extended across most of the zone of intrusion. This caused rapid migration of the plate boundary to the north, while the large majority of the lower crust to spread south unroofing Atlantis Bank and uplifting it into the rift mountains.
ArticleMagnetic mineral populations in lower oceanic crustal gabbros (Atlantis Bank, SW Indian Ridge): implications for marine magnetic anomalies(American Geophysical Union, 2020-02-28) Bowles, Julie A. ; Morris, Antony ; Tivey, Maurice A. ; Lascu, IoanTo learn more about magnetic properties of the lower ocean crust and its contributions to marine magnetic anomalies, gabbro samples were collected from International Ocean Discovery Program Hole U1473A at Atlantis Bank on the Southwest Indian Ridge. Detailed magnetic property work links certain magnetic behaviors and domain states to specific magnetic mineral populations. Measurements on whole rocks and mineral separates included magnetic hysteresis, first‐order reversal curves, low‐temperature remanence measurements, thermomagnetic analysis, and magnetic force microscopy. Characteristics of the thermomagnetic data indicate that the upper ~500 m of the hole has undergone hydrothermal alteration. The thermomagnetic and natural remanent magnetization data are consistent with earlier observations from Hole 735B that show remanence arises from low‐Ti magnetite and that natural remanent magnetizations are up to 25 A m−1 in evolved Fe‐Ti oxide gabbros, but are mostly <1 A m−1. Magnetite is present in at least three forms. Primary magnetite is associated with coarse‐grained oxides that are more frequent in the upper part of the hole. This magnetic population is linked to dominantly “pseudo‐single‐domain” behavior that arises from fine‐scale lamellar intergrowths within the large oxides. Deeper in the hole the magnetic signal is more commonly dominated by an interacting single‐domain assemblage most likely found along crystal discontinuities in olivine and/or pyroxene. A third contribution is from noninteracting single‐domain inclusions within plagioclase. Because the concentration of the highly magnetic, oxide‐rich gabbros is greatest toward the surface, the signal from coarse oxides will likely dominate the near‐bottom magnetic anomaly signal at Atlantis Bank.