Tepolt Carolyn K.
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ArticleCurrent research, pressing issues, and lingering questions in marine invasion science: lessons from the Tenth International Conference on Marine Bioinvasions (ICMB-X)(Regional Euro-Asian Biological Invasions Centre, 2020-03-21) Fowler, Amy E. ; Blakeslee, April M. H. ; Bortolus, Alejandro ; Dias, P. Joana ; Tepolt, Carolyn K. ; Schwindt, EvangelinaResearch on marine bioinvasions is an inherently international collaboration. Species range boundaries have become more fluid in recent decades as a result of enhanced human globalization, leading to species translocations across international boundaries through high profile vectors (e.g., shipping, hull fouling, aquaculture, etc.) (Ruiz et al. 2000; Seebens et al. 2013). Global trade and anthropogenic activities that promote invasive species spread continue to increase, rising by an average of 70% since 1970, with no sign of saturation (Pagad et al. 2015; Seebens et al. 2017). Even though these numbers are primarily based on terrestrial systems, recent work has demonstrated that marine ecosystems are as severely impacted by invasive species as by other human activities including overfishing, pollution (including plastics), climate change, and ocean acidification (Diaz et al. 2019). Species introductions to seas, coasts, and estuaries are therefore a global threat to human and non-human populations alike. As such, scientists and managers are increasingly focused on prevention and management, risk analysis and prioritization, and innovative technologies to detect novel species.
ArticleLatitudinal and temporal variation in injury and its impacts in the invasive Asian shore crab Hemigrapsus sanguineus(Nature Research, 2022-10-03) Griffen, Blaine D ; Alder, Jill ; Anderson, Lars ; Asay, Emily Gail ; Blakeslee, April ; Bolander, Mikayla ; Cabrera, Doreen ; Carver, Jade ; Crane, Laura C ; DiNuzzo, Eleanor R ; Fletcher, Laura S ; Luckett, Johanna ; Meidell, Morgan ; Pinkston, Emily ; Reese, Tanner C ; Repetto, Michele F ; Smith, Nanette ; Stancil, Carter ; Tepolt, Carolyn K ; Toscano, Benjamin J ; Vernier, AshleyNonlethal injury is a pervasive stress on individual animals that can affect large portions of a population at any given time. Yet most studies examine snapshots of injury at a single place and time, making the implicit assumption that the impacts of nonlethal injury are constant. We sampled Asian shore crabsHemigrapsus sanguineusthroughout their invasive North American range and from the spring through fall of 2020. We then documented the prevalence of limb loss over this space and time. We further examined the impacts of limb loss and limb regeneration on food consumption, growth, reproduction, and energy storage. We show that injury differed substantially across sites and was most common towards the southern part of their invaded range on the East Coast of North America. Injury also varied idiosyncratically across sites and through time. It also had strong impacts on individuals via reduced growth and reproduction, despite increased food consumption in injured crabs. Given the high prevalence of nonlethal injury in this species, these negative impacts of injury on individual animals likely scale up to influence population level processes (e.g., population growth), and may be one factor acting against the widespread success of this invader.
ArticleRapid adaptation to temperature via a potential genomic island of divergence in the invasive green crab, Carcinus maenas(Frontiers Media, 2020-11-26) Tepolt, Carolyn K. ; Palumbi, Stephen R.Widespread species often adapt easily to novel conditions – both those found in new habitats and those generated by climate change. However, rapid adaptation may be hindered in the marine realm, where long-distance dispersal and consequently high gene flow are predicted to limit potential for local adaptation. Here, we use a highly dispersive invasive marine crab to test the nature and speed of adaptation to temperature in the sea. Using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) generated from cardiac transcriptome sequencing, we characterized six populations of the European green crab (Carcinus maenas) located across parallel thermal gradients in their native and invasive ranges. We compared SNP frequencies with local temperatures and previously generated data on cardiac heat and cold tolerance to identify candidate markers associated with population-level differences in thermal physiology. Of 10,790 SNPs, 104 were identified as frequency outliers, a signal that was strongly driven by association with temperature and/or cold tolerance. Seventy-two of these outlier markers, representing 28 different genes, were in a cluster of SNPs identified as a potential inversion polymorphism using linkage disequilibrium network analysis. This SNP cluster was unique in the data set, which was otherwise characterized by low levels of linkage disequilibrium, and markers in this cluster showed a significant enrichment of coding substitutions relative to the full SNP set. These 72 outlier SNPs appear to be transmitted as a unit, and represent a putative genomic island of divergence which varied in frequency with organismal cold tolerance. This relationship was strikingly similar across both native and invasive populations, all of which showed a very strong correlation with cold tolerance (R2 = 0.96 over all six populations). Notably, three of these populations have diverged recently (<100 years) and show little to no neutral divergence, suggesting that this genomic region may be responding to temperature on a relatively short time scale. This relationship indicates adaptation to temperature based on the action of a putative genomic island of divergence, perhaps partially explaining the extraordinary invasive ability of this species.