Glover David M.

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David M.

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  • Article
    Correction to “Using altimetry to help explain patchy changes in hydrographic carbon measurements”
    (American Geophysical Union, 2009-12-09) Rodgers, Keith B. ; Key, Robert M. ; Gnanadesikan, Anand ; Sarmiento, Jorge L. ; Aumont, Olivier ; Bopp, Laurent ; Doney, Scott C. ; Dunne, John P. ; Glover, David M. ; Ishida, Akio ; Ishii, Masao ; Jacobson, Andrew R. ; Monaco, Claire Lo ; Maier-Reimer, Ernst ; Mercier, Herlé ; Metzl, Nicolas ; Perez, Fiz F. ; Rios, Aida F. ; Wanninkhof, Rik ; Wetzel, Patrick ; Winn, Christopher D. ; Yamanaka, Yasuhiro
  • Preprint
    Skill metrics for confronting global upper ocean ecosystem-biogeochemistry models against field and remote sensing data
    ( 2008-03-04) Doney, Scott C. ; Lima, Ivan D. ; Moore, J. Keith ; Lindsay, Keith ; Behrenfeld, Michael J. ; Westberry, Toby K. ; Mahowald, Natalie M. ; Glover, David M. ; Takahashi, Taro
    We present a generalized framework for assessing the skill of global upper ocean ecosystem-biogeochemical models against in-situ field data and satellite observations. We illustrate the approach utilizing a multi-decade (1979-2004) hindcast experiment conducted with the Community Climate System Model (CCSM-3) ocean carbon model. The CCSM-3 ocean carbon model incorporates a multi-nutrient, multi-phytoplankton functional group ecosystem module coupled with a carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus, silicon, and iron biogeochemistry module embedded in a global, threedimensional ocean general circulation model. The model is forced with physical climate forcing from atmospheric reanalysis and satellite data products and time-varying atmospheric dust deposition. Data-based skill metrics are used to evaluate the simulated time-mean spatial patterns, seasonal cycle amplitude and phase, and subannual to interannual variability. Evaluation data include: sea surface temperature and mixed layer depth; satellite derived surface ocean chlorophyll, primary productivity, phytoplankton growth rate and carbon biomass; large-scale climatologies of surface nutrients, pCO2, and air-sea CO2 and O2 flux; and time-series data from the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS). Where the data is sufficient, we construct quantitative skill metrics using: model-data residuals, time-space correlation, root mean square error, and Taylor diagrams.
  • Article
    Capturing coastal water clarity variability with Landsat 8
    (Elsevier, 2019-05-23) Luis, Kelly M.A. ; Rheuban, Jennie E. ; Kavanaugh, Maria T. ; Glover, David M. ; Wei, Jianwei ; Lee, Zhongping ; Doney, Scott C.
    Coastal water clarity varies at high temporal and spatial scales due to weather, climate, and human activity along coastlines. Systematic observations are crucial to assessing the impact of water clarity change on aquatic habitats. In this study, Secchi disk depths (ZSD) from Boston Harbor, Buzzards Bay, Cape Cod Bay, and Narragansett Bay water quality monitoring organizations were compiled to validate ZSD derived from Landsat 8 (L8) imagery, and to generate high spatial resolution ZSD maps. From 58 L8 images, acceptable agreement was found between in situ and L8 ZSD in Buzzards Bay (N = 42, RMSE = 0.96 m, MAPD = 28%), Cape Cod Bay (N = 11, RMSE = 0.62 m, MAPD = 10%), and Narragansett Bay (N = 8, RMSE = 0.59 m, MAPD = 26%). This work demonstrates the value of merging in situ ZSD with high spatial resolution remote sensing estimates for improved coastal water quality monitoring.
  • Article
    Geostatistical analysis of mesoscale spatial variability and error in SeaWiFS and MODIS/Aqua global ocean color data
    (John Wiley & Sons, 2018-01-05) Glover, David M. ; Doney, Scott C. ; Oestreich, William K. ; Tullo, Alisdair W.
    Mesoscale (10–300 km, weeks to months) physical variability strongly modulates the structure and dynamics of planktonic marine ecosystems via both turbulent advection and environmental impacts upon biological rates. Using structure function analysis (geostatistics), we quantify the mesoscale biological signals within global 13 year SeaWiFS (1998–2010) and 8 year MODIS/Aqua (2003–2010) chlorophyll a ocean color data (Level-3, 9 km resolution). We present geographical distributions, seasonality, and interannual variability of key geostatistical parameters: unresolved variability or noise, resolved variability, and spatial range. Resolved variability is nearly identical for both instruments, indicating that geostatistical techniques isolate a robust measure of biophysical mesoscale variability largely independent of measurement platform. In contrast, unresolved variability in MODIS/Aqua is substantially lower than in SeaWiFS, especially in oligotrophic waters where previous analysis identified a problem for the SeaWiFS instrument likely due to sensor noise characteristics. Both records exhibit a statistically significant relationship between resolved mesoscale variability and the low-pass filtered chlorophyll field horizontal gradient magnitude, consistent with physical stirring acting on large-scale gradient as an important factor supporting observed mesoscale variability. Comparable horizontal length scales for variability are found from tracer-based scaling arguments and geostatistical decorrelation. Regional variations between these length scales may reflect scale dependence of biological mechanisms that also create variability directly at the mesoscale, for example, enhanced net phytoplankton growth in coastal and frontal upwelling and convective mixing regions. Global estimates of mesoscale biophysical variability provide an improved basis for evaluating higher resolution, coupled ecosystem-ocean general circulation models, and data assimilation.
  • Article
    Assessing the skill of a high-resolution marine biophysical model using geostatistical analysis of mesoscale ocean chlorophyll variability from field observations and remote sensing
    (Frontiers Media, 2021-04-06) Eveleth, Rachel ; Glover, David M. ; Long, Matthew C. ; Lima, Ivan D. ; Chase, Alison P. ; Doney, Scott C.
    High-resolution ocean biophysical models are now routinely being conducted at basin and global-scale, opening opportunities to deepen our understanding of the mechanistic coupling of physical and biological processes at the mesoscale. Prior to using these models to test scientific questions, we need to assess their skill. While progress has been made in validating the mean field, little work has been done to evaluate skill of the simulated mesoscale variability. Here we use geostatistical 2-D variograms to quantify the magnitude and spatial scale of chlorophyll a patchiness in a 1/10th-degree eddy-resolving coupled Community Earth System Model simulation. We compare results from satellite remote sensing and ship underway observations in the North Atlantic Ocean, where there is a large seasonal phytoplankton bloom. The coefficients of variation, i.e., the arithmetic standard deviation divided by the mean, from the two observational data sets are approximately invariant across a large range of mean chlorophyll a values from oligotrophic and winter to subpolar bloom conditions. This relationship between the chlorophyll a mesoscale variability and the mean field appears to reflect an emergent property of marine biophysics, and the high-resolution simulation does poorly in capturing this skill metric, with the model underestimating observed variability under low chlorophyll a conditions such as in the subtropics.
  • Other
    End-User Workshop Report: Articulating the Cyberinfrastructure Needs of the Ocean Ecosystem Dynamics Community
    ( 2013-12-10) Kinkade, Danie ; Chandler, Cynthia L. ; Glover, David M. ; Groman, Robert C. ; Kline, David ; Nahorniak, Jasmine ; O'Brien, Todd D. ; Perry, Mary J. ; Pierson, James J. ; Wiebe, Peter
    An EarthCube Water Column Domain End-User Workshop hosted by the Biological and Chemical Oceanographic Data Management Office (BCO-DMO) was held October 7-8, 2013 at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. The goal of the workshop was to articulate cyberinfrastructure needs of the ocean ecosystem dynamics community with particular focus on the challenges presented by multi-disciplinary marine ecosystem research that requires investigations in four dimensions. The workshop included 50 participants in the domain of oceanic ecosystem dynamics (established and early career researchers, teaching faculty, graduate students, postdocs, data and information managers and cyber-related researchers) to explore and document the community’s cyberinfrastructure needs from the users’ viewpoint.
  • Preprint
    Air-sea gas transfer velocity estimates from the Jason-1 and TOPEX altimeters : prospects for a long-term global time series
    ( 2006-03-02) Glover, David M. ; Frew, Nelson M. ; McCue, Scott J.
    Estimation of global and regional air–sea fluxes of climatically important gases is a key goal of current climate research programs. Gas transfer velocities needed to compute these fluxes can be estimated by combining altimeter-derived mean square slope with an empirical relation between transfer velocity and mean square slope derived from field measurements of gas fluxes and small-scale wave spectra [Frew, N.M., Bock, E.J., Schimpf, U., Hara, T., Hauβecker, H., Edson, J.B., McGillis, W.R., Nelson, R.K., McKenna, S.P., Uz, B.M., Jähne, B., 2004. Air–sea gas transfer: Its dependence on wind stress, small-scale roughness and surface films, J. Geophys. Res., 109, C08S17, doi: 10.1029/2003JC002131.]. We previously reported initial results from a dual-frequency (Ku- and C-band) altimeter algorithm [Glover, D.M., Frew, N.M., McCue, S.J., Bock, E.J., 2002. A Multi-year Time Series of Global Gas Transfer Velocity from the TOPEX Dual Frequency, Normalized Radar Backscatter Algorithm, In: Gas Transfer at Water Surfaces, editors: Donelan, M., Drennan, W., Saltzman, E., and Wanninkhof, R., Geophysical Monograph 127, American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC, 325–331.] for estimating the air–sea gas transfer velocity (k) from the mean square slope of short wind waves (40–100 rad/m) and derived a 6-year time series of global transfer velocities based on TOPEX observations. Since the launch of the follow-on altimeter Jason-1 in December 2001 and commencement of the TOPEX/Jason-1 Tandem Mission, we have extended this time series to 12 years, with improvements to the model parameters used in our algorithm and using the latest corrected data releases. The prospect of deriving multi-year and interdecadal time series of gas transfer velocity from TOPEX, Jason-1 and follow-on altimeter missions depends on precise intercalibration of the normalized backscatter. During the Tandem Mission collinear phase, both satellites followed identical orbits with a mere 73-s time separation. The resulting collocated, near-coincident normalized radar backscatter (σ°) data from both altimeters present a unique opportunity to intercalibrate the two instruments, compare derived fields of transfer velocity and estimate the precision of the algorithm. Initial results suggest that the monthly gas transfer velocity fields generated from the two altimeters are very similar. Comparison of along-track Ku-band and C-band σ° during the collinear phase indicates that observed discrepancies are due primarily to small offsets between TOPEX and Jason-1 σ°. The Jason-1 k values have an apparent bias of + 4% relative to TOPEX, while the precision estimated from the two observation sets is 5–7% and scales with k. The resultant long-term, global, mean k is 16 cm/h.
  • Article
    Effect of continental shelf canyons on phytoplankton biomass and community composition along the western Antarctic Peninsula
    (Inter-Research, 2015-03-30) Kavanaugh, Maria T. ; Abdala, F. N. ; Ducklow, Hugh W. ; Glover, David M. ; Fraser, William R. ; Martinson, Douglas G. ; Stammerjohn, Sharon E. ; Schofield, Oscar M. E. ; Doney, Scott C.
    The western Antarctic Peninsula is experiencing dramatic climate change as warm, wet conditions expand poleward and interact with local physics and topography, causing differential regional effects on the marine ecosystem. At local scales, deep troughs (or canyons) bisect the continental shelf and act as conduits for warm Upper Circumpolar Deep Water, with reduced seasonal sea ice coverage, and provide a reservoir of macro- and micronutrients. Shoreward of many canyon heads are Adélie penguin breeding colonies; it is hypothesized that these locations reflect improved or more predictable access to higher biological productivity overlying the canyons. To synoptically assess the potential impacts of regional bathymetry on the marine ecosystem, 4 major canyons were identified along a latitudinal gradient west of the Antarctic Peninsula using a high-resolution bathymetric database. Biological-physical dynamics above and adjacent to canyons were compared using in situ pigments and satellite-derived sea surface temperature, sea ice and ocean color variables, including chlorophyll a (chl a) and fucoxanthin derived semi-empirically from remote sensing reflectance. Canyons exhibited higher sea surface temperature and reduced sea ice coverage relative to adjacent shelf areas. In situ and satellite-derived pigment patterns indicated increased total phytoplankton and diatom biomass over the canyons (by up to 22 and 35%, respectively), as well as increases in diatom relative abundance (fucoxanthin:chl a). While regional heterogeneity is apparent, canyons appear to support a phytoplankton community that is conducive to both grazing by krill and enhanced vertical export, although it cannot compensate for decreased biomass and diatom relative abundance during low sea ice conditions.
  • Article
    Spatial and temporal trends in summertime climate and water quality indicators in the coastal embayments of Buzzards Bay, Massachusetts
    (Copernicus Publications on behalf of the European Geosciences Union, 2016-01-15) Rheuban, Jennie E. ; Williamson, Shanna ; Costa, Joseph E. ; Glover, David M. ; Jakuba, Rachel W. ; McCorkle, Daniel C. ; Neill, Christopher ; Williams, Tony ; Doney, Scott C.
    Degradation of coastal ecosystems by eutrophication is largely defined by nitrogen loading from land via surface water and groundwater flows. However, indicators of water quality are highly variable due to a myriad of other drivers, including temperature and precipitation. To evaluate these drivers, we examined spatial and temporal trends in a 22-year record of summer water quality data from 122 stations in 17 embayments within Buzzards Bay, MA (USA), collected through a citizen science monitoring program managed by Buzzards Bay Coalition. To identify spatial patterns across Buzzards Bay's embayments, we used a principle component and factor analysis and found that rotated factor loadings indicated little correlation between inorganic nutrients and organic matter or chlorophyll a (Chl a) concentration. Factor scores showed that embayment geomorphology in addition to nutrient loading was a strong driver of water quality, where embayments with surface water inputs showed larger biological impacts than embayments dominated by groundwater influx. A linear regression analysis of annual summertime water quality indicators over time revealed that from 1992 to 2013, most embayments (15 of 17) exhibited an increase in temperature (mean rate of 0.082 ± 0.025 (SD) °C yr−1) and Chl a (mean rate of 0.0171 ± 0.0088 log10 (Chl a; mg m−3) yr−1, equivalent to a 4.0 % increase per year). However, only seven embayments exhibited an increase in total nitrogen (TN) concentration (mean rate 0.32 ± 0.47 (SD) µM yr−1). Average summertime log10(TN) and log10(Chl a) were correlated with an indication that the yield of Chl a per unit total nitrogen increased with time suggesting the estuarine response to TN may have changed because of other stressors such as warming, altered precipitation patterns, or changing light levels. These findings affirm that nitrogen loading and physical aspects of embayments are essential in explaining the observed ecosystem response. However, climate-related stressors may also need to be considered by managers because increased temperature and precipitation may worsen water quality and partially offset benefits achieved by reducing nitrogen loading.
  • Article
    Using altimetry to help explain patchy changes in hydrographic carbon measurements
    (American Geophysical Union, 2009-09-18) Rodgers, Keith B. ; Key, Robert M. ; Gnanadesikan, Anand ; Sarmiento, Jorge L. ; Aumont, Olivier ; Bopp, Laurent ; Doney, Scott C. ; Dunne, John P. ; Glover, David M. ; Ishida, Akio ; Ishii, Masao ; Jacobson, Andrew R. ; Monaco, Claire Lo ; Maier-Reimer, Ernst ; Mercier, Herlé ; Metzl, Nicolas ; Perez, Fiz F. ; Rios, Aida F. ; Wanninkhof, Rik ; Wetzel, Patrick ; Winn, Christopher D. ; Yamanaka, Yasuhiro
    Here we use observations and ocean models to identify mechanisms driving large seasonal to interannual variations in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and dissolved oxygen (O2) in the upper ocean. We begin with observations linking variations in upper ocean DIC and O2 inventories with changes in the physical state of the ocean. Models are subsequently used to address the extent to which the relationships derived from short-timescale (6 months to 2 years) repeat measurements are representative of variations over larger spatial and temporal scales. The main new result is that convergence and divergence (column stretching) attributed to baroclinic Rossby waves can make a first-order contribution to DIC and O2 variability in the upper ocean. This results in a close correspondence between natural variations in DIC and O2 column inventory variations and sea surface height (SSH) variations over much of the ocean. Oceanic Rossby wave activity is an intrinsic part of the natural variability in the climate system and is elevated even in the absence of significant interannual variability in climate mode indices. The close correspondence between SSH and both DIC and O2 column inventories for many regions suggests that SSH changes (inferred from satellite altimetry) may prove useful in reducing uncertainty in separating natural and anthropogenic DIC signals (using measurements from Climate Variability and Predictability's CO2/Repeat Hydrography program).
  • Article
    IOC contributions to international, interdisciplinary open data sharing
    (Oceanography Society, 2010-09) Glover, David M. ; Wiebe, Peter H. ; Chandler, Cynthia L. ; Levitus, Sydney
    Over the last 50 years, the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) has had a profound influence upon the willingness of United Nations Member States to share and provide access to their international and interdisciplinary oceanographic data. (For an early history and review of IOC achievements, see Roll, 1979.) Ocean science over the last half century has been transformed from a predominately modular, single-disciplinary, and individualistic science into a national and multinational interdisciplinary enterprise (Briscoe, 2008; Powell, 2008). The transformation began slowly, but as computing power increased, the pace accelerated, and along with these alterations came shifts in cultural practices regarding the sharing of data.
  • Article
    A new approach to estimation of global air-sea gas transfer velocity fields using dual-frequency altimeter backscatter
    (American Geophysical Union, 2007-11-03) Frew, Nelson M. ; Glover, David M. ; Bock, Erik J. ; McCue, Scott J.
    A new approach to estimating air-sea gas transfer velocities based on normalized backscatter from the dual-frequency TOPEX and Jason-1 altimeters is described. The differential scattering of Ku-band (13.6 GHz) and C-band (5.3 GHz) microwave pulses is used to isolate the contribution of small-scale waves to mean square slope and gas transfer. Mean square slope is derived for the nominal wave number range 40–100 rad m−1 by differencing mean square slope estimates computed from the normalized backscatter in each band, using a simple geometric optics model. Model parameters for calculating the differenced mean square slope over this wave number range are optimized using in situ optical slope measurements. An empirical relation between gas transfer velocity and mean square slope, also based on field measurements, is then used to derive gas transfer velocities. Initial results demonstrate that the calculated transfer velocities exhibit magnitudes and a dynamic range which are generally consistent with existing field measurements. The new algorithm is used to construct monthly global maps of gas transfer velocity and to illustrate seasonal transfer velocity variations over a 1-year period. The measurement precision estimated from >106 duplicate observations of the sea surface by TOPEX and Jason-1 altimeters orbiting in tandem is better than 10%. The estimated overall uncertainty of the method is ±30%. The long-term global, area-weighted, Schmidt number corrected, mean gas transfer velocity is 13.7 ± 4.1 cm h−1. The new approach, based on surface roughness, represents a potential alternative to commonly used parameterizations based on wind speed.
  • Article
    An integrated assessment model for helping the United States sea scallop (Placopecten magellanicus) fishery plan ahead for ocean acidification and warming
    (Public Library of Science, 2015-05-06) Cooley, Sarah R. ; Rheuban, Jennie E. ; Hart, Deborah R. ; Luu, Victoria ; Glover, David M. ; Hare, Jonathan A. ; Doney, Scott C.
    Ocean acidification, the progressive change in ocean chemistry caused by uptake of atmospheric CO2, is likely to affect some marine resources negatively, including shellfish. The Atlantic sea scallop (Placopecten magellanicus) supports one of the most economically important single-species commercial fisheries in the United States. Careful management appears to be the most powerful short-term factor affecting scallop populations, but in the coming decades scallops will be increasingly influenced by global environmental changes such as ocean warming and ocean acidification. In this paper, we describe an integrated assessment model (IAM) that numerically simulates oceanographic, population dynamic, and socioeconomic relationships for the U.S. commercial sea scallop fishery. Our primary goal is to enrich resource management deliberations by offering both short- and long-term insight into the system and generating detailed policy-relevant information about the relative effects of ocean acidification, temperature rise, fishing pressure, and socioeconomic factors on the fishery using a simplified model system. Starting with relationships and data used now for sea scallop fishery management, the model adds socioeconomic decision making based on static economic theory and includes ocean biogeochemical change resulting from CO2 emissions. The model skillfully reproduces scallop population dynamics, market dynamics, and seawater carbonate chemistry since 2000. It indicates sea scallop harvests could decline substantially by 2050 under RCP 8.5 CO2 emissions and current harvest rules, assuming that ocean acidification affects P. magellanicus by decreasing recruitment and slowing growth, and that ocean warming increases growth. Future work will explore different economic and management scenarios and test how potential impacts of ocean acidification on other scallop biological parameters may influence the social-ecological system. Future empirical work on the effect of ocean acidification on sea scallops is also needed.
  • Article
    Life-cycle modification in open oceans accounts for genome variability in a cosmopolitan phytoplankton
    (Nature Publishing Group, 2014-12-02) von Dassow, Peter ; John, Uwe ; Ogata, Hiroyuki ; Probert, Ian ; Bendif, El Mahdi ; Kege, Jessica U. ; Audic, Stephane ; Wincker, Patrick ; Da Silva, Corinne ; Claverie, Jean-Michel ; Doney, Scott C. ; Glover, David M. ; Flores, Daniella Mella ; Herrera, Yeritza ; Lescot, Magali ; Garet-Delmas, Marie-Jose ; de Vargas, Colomban
    Emiliania huxleyi is the most abundant calcifying plankton in modern oceans with substantial intraspecific genome variability and a biphasic life cycle involving sexual alternation between calcified 2N and flagellated 1N cells. We show that high genome content variability in Emiliania relates to erosion of 1N-specific genes and loss of the ability to form flagellated cells. Analysis of 185 E. huxleyi strains isolated from world oceans suggests that loss of flagella occurred independently in lineages inhabiting oligotrophic open oceans over short evolutionary timescales. This environmentally linked physiogenomic change suggests life cycling is not advantageous in very large/diluted populations experiencing low biotic pressure and low ecological variability. Gene loss did not appear to reflect pressure for genome streamlining in oligotrophic oceans as previously observed in picoplankton. Life-cycle modifications might be common in plankton and cause major functional variability to be hidden from traditional taxonomic or molecular markers.