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ArticleNanoparticle-biological interactions in a marine benthic foraminifer(Nature Research, 2019-12-19) Ciacci, Caterina ; Grimmelpont, Margot V. ; Corsi, Ilaria ; Bergami, Elisa ; Curzi, Davide ; Burini, Debora ; Bouchet, Vincent M. P. ; Ambrogini, Patrizia ; Gobbi, Pietro ; Ujiié, Yurika ; Ishitani, Yoshiyuki ; Coccioni, Rodolfo ; Bernhard, Joan M. ; Frontalini, FabrizioThe adverse effects of engineered nanomaterials (ENM) in marine environments have recently attracted great attention although their effects on marine benthic organisms such as foraminifera are still largely overlooked. Here we document the effects of three negatively charged ENM, different in size and composition, titanium dioxide (TiO2), polystyrene (PS) and silicon dioxide (SiO2), on a microbial eukaryote (the benthic foraminifera Ammonia parkinsoniana) using multiple approaches. This research clearly shows the presence, within the foraminiferal cytoplasm, of metallic (Ti) and organic (PS) ENM that promote physiological stress. Specifically, marked increases in the accumulation of neutral lipids and enhanced reactive oxygen species production occurred in ENM-treated specimens regardless of ENM type. This study indicates that ENM represent ecotoxicological risks for this microbial eukaryote and presents a new model for the neglected marine benthos by which to assess natural exposure scenarios.