Smith Juliette L.

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Juliette L.

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  • Preprint
    Alexandrium fundyense cysts in the Gulf of Maine : long-term time series of abundance and distribution, and linkages to past and future blooms
    ( 2013-10) Anderson, Donald M. ; Keafer, Bruce A. ; Kleindinst, Judith L. ; McGillicuddy, Dennis J. ; Martin, Jennifer L. ; Norton, Kerry ; Pilskaln, Cynthia H. ; Smith, Juliette L. ; Sherwood, Christopher R. ; Butman, Bradford
    Here we document Alexandrium fundyense cyst abundance and distribution patterns over nine years (1997 and 2004-2011) in the coastal waters of the Gulf of Maine (GOM) and identify linkages between those patterns and several metrics of the severity or magnitude of blooms occurring before and after each autumn cyst survey. We also explore the relative utility of two measures of cyst abundance and demonstrate that GOM cyst counts can be normalized to sediment volume, revealing meaningful patterns equivalent to those determined with dry weight normalization.Cyst concentrations were highly variable spatially. Two distinct 1 seedbeds (defined here as accumulation zones with > 300 cysts cm-3) are evident, one in the Bay of Fundy (BOF) and one in mid-coast Maine. Overall, seedbed locations remained relatively constant through time, but their area varied 3-4 fold, and total cyst abundance more than 10 fold among years. A major expansion of the mid-coast Maine seedbed occurred in 2009 following an unusually intense A. fundyense bloom with visible red-water conditions, but that feature disappeared by late 2010. The regional system thus has only two seedbeds with the bathymetry, sediment characteristics, currents, biology, and environmental conditions necessary to persist for decades or longer. Strong positive correlations were confirmed between the abundance of cysts in both the 0-1 and the 0-3 cm layers of sediments in autumn and geographic measures of the extent of the bloom that occurred the next year (i.e., cysts → blooms), such as the length of coastline closed due to shellfish toxicity or the southernmost latitude of shellfish closures. In general, these metrics of bloom geographic extent did not correlate with the number of cysts in sediments following the blooms (blooms → cysts). There are, however, significant positive correlations between 0-3 cm cyst abundances and metrics of the preceding bloom that are indicative of bloom intensity or vegetative cell abundance (e.g., cumulative shellfish toxicity, duration of detectable toxicity in shellfish, and bloom termination date). These data suggest that it may be possible to use cyst abundance to empirically forecast the geographic extent of the forthcoming bloom and, conversely, to use other metrics from bloom and toxicity events to forecast the size of the subsequent cyst population as the inoculum for the next year’s bloom. This is an important step towards understanding the excystment/encystment cycle in A. fundyense bloom dynamics while also augmenting our predictive capability for this HAB-forming species in the GOM.
  • Article
    Marine harmful algal blooms (HABs) in the united states: history, current status and future trends
    (Elsevier, 2021-03-03) Anderson, Donald M. ; Fensin, Elizabeth ; Gobler, Christopher J. ; Hoeglund, Alicia E. ; Hubbard, Katherine A. ; Kulis, David M. ; Landsberg, Jan H. ; Lefebvre, Kathi A. ; Provoost, Pieter ; Richlen, Mindy L. ; Smith, Juliette L. ; Solow, Andrew R. ; Trainer, Vera L.
    Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are diverse phenomena involving multiple. species and classes of algae that occupy a broad range of habitats from lakes to oceans and produce a multiplicity of toxins or bioactive compounds that impact many different resources. Here, a review of the status of this complex array of marine HAB problems in the U.S. is presented, providing historical information and trends as well as future perspectives. The study relies on thirty years (1990–2019) of data in HAEDAT - the IOC-ICES-PICES Harmful Algal Event database, but also includes many other reports. At a qualitative level, the U.S. national HAB problem is far more extensive than was the case decades ago, with more toxic species and toxins to monitor, as well as a larger range of impacted resources and areas affected. Quantitatively, no significant trend is seen for paralytic shellfish toxin (PST) events over the study interval, though there is clear evidence of the expansion of the problem into new regions and the emergence of a species that produces PSTs in Florida – Pyrodinium bahamense. Amnesic shellfish toxin (AST) events have significantly increased in the U.S., with an overall pattern of frequent outbreaks on the West Coast, emerging, recurring outbreaks on the East Coast, and sporadic incidents in the Gulf of Mexico. Despite the long historical record of neurotoxic shellfish toxin (NST) events, no significant trend is observed over the past 30 years. The recent emergence of diarrhetic shellfish toxins (DSTs) in the U.S. began along the Gulf Coast in 2008 and expanded to the West and East Coasts, though no significant trend through time is seen since then. Ciguatoxin (CTX) events caused by Gambierdiscus dinoflagellates have long impacted tropical and subtropical locations in the U.S., but due to a lack of monitoring programs as well as under-reporting of illnesses, data on these events are not available for time series analysis. Geographic expansion of Gambierdiscus into temperate and non-endemic areas (e.g., northern Gulf of Mexico) is apparent, and fostered by ocean warming. HAB-related marine wildlife morbidity and mortality events appear to be increasing, with statistically significant increasing trends observed in marine mammal poisonings caused by ASTs along the coast of California and NSTs in Florida. Since their first occurrence in 1985 in New York, brown tides resulting from high-density blooms of Aureococcus have spread south to Delaware, Maryland, and Virginia, while those caused by Aureoumbra have spread from the Gulf Coast to the east coast of Florida. Blooms of Margalefidinium polykrikoides occurred in four locations in the U.S. from 1921–2001 but have appeared in more than 15  U.S. estuaries since then, with ocean warming implicated as a causative factor. Numerous blooms of toxic cyanobacteria have been documented in all 50  U.S. states and the transport of cyanotoxins from freshwater systems into marine coastal waters is a recently identified and potentially significant threat to public and ecosystem health. Taken together, there is a significant increasing trend in all HAB events in HAEDAT over the 30-year study interval. Part of this observed HAB expansion simply reflects a better realization of the true or historic scale of the problem, long obscured by inadequate monitoring. Other contributing factors include the dispersion of species to new areas, the discovery of new HAB poisoning syndromes or impacts, and the stimulatory effects of human activities like nutrient pollution, aquaculture expansion, and ocean warming, among others. One result of this multifaceted expansion is that many regions of the U.S. now face a daunting diversity of species and toxins, representing a significant and growing challenge to resource managers and public health officials in terms of toxins, regions, and time intervals to monitor, and necessitating new approaches to monitoring and management. Mobilization of funding and resources for research, monitoring and management of HABs requires accurate information on the scale and nature of the national problem. HAEDAT and other databases can be of great value in this regard but efforts are needed to expand and sustain the collection of data regionally and nationally.
  • Dataset
    Chemical data associated with field collections from the Gulf of Maine, Nauset Marsh Estuary System, and Long Island Sound (Alexandrium isotopes project)
    (Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO). Contact:, 2019-03-20) Smith, Juliette L. ; Anderson, Donald M. ; Erdner, Deana L. ; McClelland, James W.
    Chemical data associated with field collections from the Gulf of Maine, Nauset Marsh Estuary System, and Long Island Sound (Alexandrium isotopes project) For a complete list of measurements, refer to the full dataset description in the supplemental file 'Dataset_description.pdf'. The most current version of this dataset is available at:
  • Article
    Effects of two toxin-producing harmful algae, Alexandrium catenella and Dinophysis acuminata (Dinophyceae), on activity and mortality of larval shellfish
    (MDPI, 2022-05-10) Pease, Sarah K. D. ; Brosnahan, Michael L. ; Sanderson, Marta P. ; Smith, Juliette L.
    Harmful algal bloom (HAB) species Alexandrium catenella and Dinophysis acuminata are associated with paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) and diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) in humans, respectively. While PSP and DSP have been studied extensively, less is known about the effects of these HAB species or their associated toxins on shellfish. This study investigated A. catenella and D. acuminata toxicity in a larval oyster (Crassostrea virginica) bioassay. Larval activity and mortality were examined through 96-h laboratory exposures to live HAB cells (10–1000 cells/mL), cell lysates (1000 cells/mL equivalents), and purified toxins (10,000 cells/mL equivalents). Exposure to 1000 cells/mL live or lysed D. acuminata caused larval mortality (21.9 ± 7.0%, 10.2 ± 4.0%, respectively) while exposure to any tested cell concentration of live A. catenella, but not lysate, caused swimming arrest and/or mortality in >50% of larvae. Exposure to high concentrations of saxitoxin (STX) or okadaic acid (OA), toxins traditionally associated with PSP and DSP, respectively, had no effect on larval activity or mortality. In contrast, pectenotoxin-2 (PTX2) caused rapid larval mortality (49.6 ± 5.8% by 48 h) and completely immobilized larval oysters. The results indicate that the toxic effects of A. catenella and D. acuminata on shellfish are not linked to the primary toxins associated with PSP and DSP in humans, and that PTX2 is acutely toxic to larval oysters.
  • Article
    Dihydrodinophysistoxin-1 produced by Dinophysis norvegica in the Gulf of Maine, USA and its accumulation in shellfish
    (Toxins, 2020-08-20) Deeds, Jonathan R. ; Stutts, Whitney L. ; Celiz, Mary Dawn ; MacLeod, Jill ; Hamilton, Amy E. ; Lewis, Bryant J. ; Miller, David W. ; Kanwit, Kohl ; Smith, Juliette L. ; Kulis, David M. ; McCarron, Pearse ; Rauschenberg, Carlton D. ; Burnell, Craig A. ; Archer, Stephen D. ; Borchert, Jerry ; Lankford, Shelley K.
    Dihydrodinophysistoxin-1 (dihydro-DTX1, (M-H)−m/z 819.5), described previously from a marine sponge but never identified as to its biological source or described in shellfish, was detected in multiple species of commercial shellfish collected from the central coast of the Gulf of Maine, USA in 2016 and in 2018 during blooms of the dinoflagellate Dinophysis norvegica. Toxin screening by protein phosphatase inhibition (PPIA) first detected the presence of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning-like bioactivity; however, confirmatory analysis using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) failed to detect okadaic acid (OA, (M-H)−m/z 803.5), dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX1, (M-H)−m/z 817.5), or dinophysistoxin-2 (DTX2, (M-H)−m/z 803.5) in samples collected during the bloom. Bioactivity-guided fractionation followed by liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) tentatively identified dihydro-DTX1 in the PPIA active fraction. LC-MS/MS measurements showed an absence of OA, DTX1, and DTX2, but confirmed the presence of dihydro-DTX1 in shellfish during blooms of D. norvegica in both years, with results correlating well with PPIA testing. Two laboratory cultures of D. norvegica isolated from the 2018 bloom were found to produce dihydro-DTX1 as the sole DSP toxin, confirming the source of this compound in shellfish. Estimated concentrations of dihydro-DTX1 were >0.16 ppm in multiple shellfish species (max. 1.1 ppm) during the blooms in 2016 and 2018. Assuming an equivalent potency and molar response to DTX1, the authority initiated precautionary shellfish harvesting closures in both years. To date, no illnesses have been associated with the presence of dihydro-DTX1 in shellfish in the Gulf of Maine region and studies are underway to determine the potency of this new toxin relative to the currently regulated DSP toxins in order to develop appropriate management guidance.
  • Article
    Toxin profiles of five geographical isolates of Dinophysis spp. from North and South America
    (Elsevier B.V., 2010-12-10) Fux, Elie ; Smith, Juliette L. ; Tong, Mengmeng ; Guzman, Leonardo ; Anderson, Donald M.
    Marine dinoflagellates of the genus Dinophysis can produce toxins of the okadaic acid (OA) and pectenotoxin (PTX) groups. These lipophilic toxins accumulate in filter-feeding shellfish and cause an illness in consumers called diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP). In 2008, a bloom of Dinophysis led to the closure of shellfish harvesting areas along the Texas coast, one of the first DSP-related closures in the U.S. This event resulted in a broad study of toxin production in isolates of Dinophysis spp. from U.S. waters. In the present study, we compared toxin profiles in geographical isolates of Dinophysis collected in the U.S. (Eel Pond, Woods Hole MA; Martha’s Vineyard, MA; and Port Aransas Bay, Texas), and in those from Canada (Blacks Harbour, Bay of Fundy) and Chile (Reloncavi Estuary), when cultured in the laboratory under the same conditions. For each isolate, the mitochondrial cox1 gene was sequenced to assist in species identification. Strains from the northeastern U.S. and Canada were all assigned to Dinophysis acuminata, while those from Chile and Texas were most likely within the D. acuminata complex whereas precise species designation could not be made with this marker. Toxins were detected in all Dinophysis isolates and each isolate had a different profile. Toxin profiles of isolates from Eel Pond, Martha’s Vineyard, and Bay of Fundy were most similar, in that they all contained OA, DTX1, and PTX2. The Eel Pond isolate also contained OA-D8 and DTX1-D7, and low levels (unconfirmed structurally) of DTX1-D8 and DTX1-D9. D. acuminata from Martha’s Vineyard produced DTX1-D7, along with OA, DTX1, and PTX2, as identified in both the cells and the culture medium. D. acuminata from the Bay of Fundy produced DTX1 and PTX2, as found in both cells and culture medium, while only trace amounts of OA were detected in the medium. The Dinophysis strain from Texas only produced OA, and the one from Chile only PTX2, as confirmed in both cells and culture medium.
  • Article
    A survey of Dinophysis spp. and their potential to cause diarrhetic shellfish poisoning in coastal waters of the United States
    (Wiley, 2023-03) Ayache, Nour ; Bill, Brian D. ; Brosnahan, Michael L. ; Campbell, Lisa ; Deeds, Jonathan R. ; Fiorendino, James M. ; Gobler, Christopher J. ; Handy, Sara M. ; Harrington, Neil ; Kulis, David M. ; McCarron, Pearse ; Miles, Christopher O. ; Moore, Stephanie K. ; Nagai, Satoshi ; Trainer, Vera L. ; Wolny, Jennifer L. ; Young, Craig S. ; Smith, Juliette L.
    Multiple species of the genus Dinophysis produce diarrhetic shellfish toxins (okadaic acid and Dinophysis toxins, OA/DTXs analogs) and/or pectenotoxins (PTXs). Only since 2008 have DSP events (illnesses and/or shellfish harvesting closures) become recognized as a threat to human health in the United States. This study characterized 20 strains representing five species of Dinophysis spp. isolated from three US coastal regions that have experienced DSP events: the Northeast/Mid‐Atlantic, the Gulf of Mexico, and the Pacific Northwest. Using a combination of morphometric and DNA‐based evidence, seven Northeast/Mid‐Atlantic isolates and four Pacific Northwest isolates were classified as D. acuminata, a total of four isolates from two coasts were classified as D. norvegica, two isolates from the Pacific Northwest coast were identified as D. fortii, and three isolates from the Gulf of Mexico were identified as D. ovum and D. caudata. Toxin profiles of D. acuminata and D. norvegica varied by their geographical origin within the United States. Cross‐regional comparison of toxin profiles was not possible with the other three species; however, within each region, distinct species‐conserved profiles for isolates of D. fortii, D. ovum, and D. caudata were observed. Historical and recent data from various State and Tribal monitoring programs were compiled and compared, including maximum recorded cell abundances of Dinophysis spp., maximum concentrations of OA/DTXs recorded in commercial shellfish species, and durations of harvesting closures, to provide perspective regarding potential for DSP impacts to regional public health and shellfish industry.