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ArticleColonisation of newly-opened habitat by a pioneer species, Alvinella pompejana (Polychaeta: Alvinellidae), at East Pacific Rise vent sites(Inter-Research, 2005-11-04) Pradillon, Florence ; Zbinden, Magali ; Mullineaux, Lauren S. ; Gaill, FrancoiseAnimal communities on the walls of deep-sea hydrothermal chimneys are distributed in mosaics of patches that may evolve as local environmental conditions change and biological interactions develop. Alvinella pompejana Desbruyères et Laubier, 1980 is one of the first metazoan colonisers of new surfaces created by mineral precipitation, and therefore may be particularly important in community establishment in active parts of smokers. Here our goal was to investigate the colonisation mechanisms of A. pompejana in new patches and determine whether these mechanisms may influence population structure and reproductive patterns in this species. We deployed a series of TRAC (Titanium Ring for Alvinellid Colonisation) devices at East Pacific Rise (EPR) vent sites to compare the size and stage (i.e. reproductive maturity) distribution of A. pompejana individuals between recently colonised patches (TRACs) and established patches (grabbed by submersible). TRACs deployed for short time periods (11 d to 1 mo) were generally colonised by smaller individuals than those found in background populations or in TRACs deployed for longer time periods (>1 mo). Colonists into new patches were a mix of juveniles and individuals that were sexually mature but non-reproductive (i.e. not producing gametes), whereas background population and older patches harboured a mixture of individuals at different stages including reproductive females. Although some individuals may have recruited on TRACs as larvae, the major colonisation process involved was probably immigration of post-larval stages. In long-term TRAC, reproductive females were not reproductively synchronised. In this dynamic environment, reproduction would be triggered by the disturbance/migration processes, explaining the heterogeneity observed in reproductive patterns.
ArticleIntegrating Multidisciplinary Observations in Vent Environments (IMOVE): decadal progress in deep-sea observatories at hydrothermal vents(Frontiers Media, 2022-05-13) Matabos, Marjolaine ; Barreyre, Thibaut ; Juniper, S. Kim ; Cannat, Mathilde ; Kelley, Deborah S. ; Alfaro-Lucas, Joan M. ; Chavagnac, Valerie ; Colaço, Ana ; Escartin, Javier E. ; Escobar Briones, Elva ; Fornari, Daniel J. ; Hasenclever, Jörg ; Huber, Julie A. ; Laës-Huon, Agathe ; Lantéri, Nadine ; Levin, Lisa A. ; Mihaly, Steven F. ; Mittelstaedt, Eric ; Pradillon, Florence ; Sarradin, Pierre-Marie ; Sarradin, Pierre-Marie ; Sarrazin, Jozée ; Tomasi, Beatrice ; Venkatesan, Ramasamy ; Vic, ClémentThe unique ecosystems and biodiversity associated with mid-ocean ridge (MOR) hydrothermal vent systems contrast sharply with surrounding deep-sea habitats, however both may be increasingly threatened by anthropogenic activity (e.g., mining activities at massive sulphide deposits). Climate change can alter the deep-sea through increased bottom temperatures, loss of oxygen, and modifications to deep water circulation. Despite the potential of these profound impacts, the mechanisms enabling these systems and their ecosystems to persist, function and respond to oceanic, crustal, and anthropogenic forces remain poorly understood. This is due primarily to technological challenges and difficulties in accessing, observing and monitoring the deep-sea. In this context, the development of deep-sea observatories in the 2000s focused on understanding the coupling between sub-surface flow and oceanic and crustal conditions, and how they influence biological processes. Deep-sea observatories provide long-term, multidisciplinary time-series data comprising repeated observations and sampling at temporal resolutions from seconds to decades, through a combination of cabled, wireless, remotely controlled, and autonomous measurement systems. The three existing vent observatories are located on the Juan de Fuca and Mid-Atlantic Ridges (Ocean Observing Initiative, Ocean Networks Canada and the European Multidisciplinary Seafloor and water column Observatory). These observatories promote stewardship by defining effective environmental monitoring including characterizing biological and environmental baseline states, discriminating changes from natural variations versus those from anthropogenic activities, and assessing degradation, resilience and recovery after disturbance. This highlights the potential of observatories as valuable tools for environmental impact assessment (EIA) in the context of climate change and other anthropogenic activities, primarily ocean mining. This paper provides a synthesis on scientific advancements enabled by the three observatories this last decade, and recommendations to support future studies through international collaboration and coordination. The proposed recommendations include: i) establishing common global scientific questions and identification of Essential Ocean Variables (EOVs) specific to MORs, ii) guidance towards the effective use of observatories to support and inform policies that can impact society, iii) strategies for observatory infrastructure development that will help standardize sensors, data formats and capabilities, and iv) future technology needs and common sampling approaches to answer today’s most urgent and timely questions.