Barclay Andrew H.

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Andrew H.

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  • Article
    The Cascadia Initiative : a sea change In seismological studies of subduction zones
    (The Oceanography Society, 2014-06) Toomey, Douglas R. ; Allen, Richard M. ; Barclay, Andrew H. ; Bell, Samuel W. ; Bromirski, Peter D. ; Carlson, Richard L. ; Chen, Xiaowei ; Collins, John A. ; Dziak, Robert P. ; Evers, Brent ; Forsyth, Donald W. ; Gerstoft, Peter ; Hooft, Emilie E. E. ; Livelybrooks, Dean ; Lodewyk, Jessica A. ; Luther, Douglas S. ; McGuire, Jeffrey J. ; Schwartz, Susan Y. ; Tolstoy, Maya ; Trehu, Anne M. ; Weirathmueller, Michelle ; Wilcock, William S. D.
    Increasing public awareness that the Cascadia subduction zone in the Pacific Northwest is capable of great earthquakes (magnitude 9 and greater) motivates the Cascadia Initiative, an ambitious onshore/offshore seismic and geodetic experiment that takes advantage of an amphibious array to study questions ranging from megathrust earthquakes, to volcanic arc structure, to the formation, deformation and hydration of the Juan De Fuca and Gorda Plates. Here, we provide an overview of the Cascadia Initiative, including its primary science objectives, its experimental design and implementation, and a preview of how the resulting data are being used by a diverse and growing scientific community. The Cascadia Initiative also exemplifies how new technology and community-based experiments are opening up frontiers for marine science. The new technology—shielded ocean bottom seismometers—is allowing more routine investigation of the source zone of megathrust earthquakes, which almost exclusively lies offshore and in shallow water. The Cascadia Initiative offers opportunities and accompanying challenges to a rapidly expanding community of those who use ocean bottom seismic data.
  • Article
    Microearthquake patterns following the 1998 eruption of Axial Volcano, Juan de Fuca Ridge : mechanical relaxation and thermal strain
    (American Geophysical Union, 2004-01-14) Sohn, Robert A. ; Barclay, Andrew H. ; Webb, Spahr C.
    Ocean bottom seismic networks deployed following the 1998 eruption of Axial seamount reveal an evolving pattern of microearthquake activity associated with subsurface magmatism and thermal strain. Seismicity rates decay steadily over 15 months of observation (February 8, 1998, to April 30, 1999), consistent with a trend toward thermal and mechanical equilibrium in the shallow crust after the magmatic event. Immediately after the eruption, seismicity rates were high for about 60 days in the southeast corner of the caldera where lava flows from the 1998 eruption were mapped. A small burst of seismic activity was observed on the southeast shoulder of the volcano from 100 to 150 days after the eruption. These events, which are characterized by slip on nearly vertical faults in the shallow crust, extend about 6 km from the southeast corner of the caldera and overlie a mid-crustal low-velocity zone. After this episode, seismicity rates remain low until the end of the observation period, 455 days after the eruption. Shallow (~0.7 km depth) events, consistent with thermal contraction and volume changes of ~2 × 10−3 m3 in ~5 m3 sources, are observed in individual clusters beneath hydrothermal vents within the 1998 lava flow at the southeast edge of the caldera. Microearthquakes observed during the last 70 days of observation are distributed around the central caldera, most likely representing small amounts of subsidence on caldera faults during the final stages of equilibration following melt withdrawal associated with the 1998 eruption.
  • Article
    Extensive modulation of the fecal metagenome in children With Crohn’s disease during exclusive enteral nutrition
    (Nature Publishing Group, 2015-11-03) Quince, Christopher ; Ijaz, Umer Zeeshan ; Loman, Nick ; Eren, A. Murat ; Saulnier, Delphine ; Russell, Julie ; Haig, Sarah J. ; Calus, Szymon T. ; Quick, Joshua ; Barclay, Andrew H. ; Bertz, Martin ; Blaut, Michael ; Hansen, Richard ; McGrogan, Paraic ; Russell, Richard K. ; Edwards, Christine A. ; Gerasimidis, Konstantinos
    Exploring associations between the gut microbiota and colonic inflammation and assessing sequential changes during exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN) may offer clues into the microbial origins of Crohn’s disease (CD). Fecal samples (n=117) were collected from 23 CD and 21 healthy children. From CD children fecal samples were collected before, during EEN, and when patients returned to their habitual diets. Microbiota composition and functional capacity were characterized using sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and shotgun metagenomics. Microbial diversity was lower in CD than controls before EEN (P=0.006); differences were observed in 36 genera, 141 operational taxonomic units (OTUs), and 44 oligotypes. During EEN, the microbial diversity of CD children further decreased, and the community structure became even more dissimilar than that of controls. Every 10 days on EEN, 0.6 genus diversity equivalents were lost; 34 genera decreased and one increased during EEN. Fecal calprotectin correlated with 35 OTUs, 14 of which accounted for 78% of its variation. OTUs that correlated positively or negatively with calprotectin decreased during EEN. The microbiota of CD patients had a broader functional capacity than healthy controls, but diversity decreased with EEN. Genes involved in membrane transport, sulfur reduction, and nutrient biosynthesis differed between patients and controls. The abundance of genes involved in biotin (P=0.005) and thiamine biosynthesis decreased (P=0.017), whereas those involved in spermidine/putrescine biosynthesis (P=0.031), or the shikimate pathway (P=0.058), increased during EEN. Disease improvement following treatment with EEN is associated with extensive modulation of the gut microbiome.