Manizza Manfredi

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  • Article
    An atmospheric constraint on the seasonal Air-Sea exchange of oxygen and heat in the extratropics
    (American Geophysical Union, 2021-07-22) Morgan, Eric J. ; Manizza, Manfredi ; Keeling, Ralph F. ; Resplandy, Laure ; Mikaloff Fletcher, Sara E. ; Nevison, Cynthia D. ; Jin, Yuming ; Bent, Jonathan D. ; Aumont, Olivier ; Doney, Scott C. ; Dunne, John P. ; John, Jasmin G. ; Lima, Ivan D. ; Long, Matthew C. ; Rodgers, Keith B.
    The air-sea exchange of oxygen (O2) is driven by changes in solubility, biological activity, and circulation. The total air-sea exchange of O2 has been shown to be closely related to the air-sea exchange of heat on seasonal timescales, with the ratio of the seasonal flux of O2 to heat varying with latitude, being higher in the extratropics and lower in the subtropics. This O2/heat ratio is both a fundamental biogeochemical property of air-sea exchange and a convenient metric for testing earth system models. Current estimates of the O2/heat flux ratio rely on sparse observations of dissolved O2, leaving it fairly unconstrained. From a model ensemble we show that the ratio of the seasonal amplitude of two atmospheric tracers, atmospheric potential oxygen (APO) and the argon-to-nitrogen ratio (Ar/O2), exhibits a close relationship to the O2/heat ratio of the extratropics (40–70°). The amplitude ratio, A APO/A ArN2, is relatively constant within the extratropics of each hemisphere due to the zonal mixing of the atmosphere. A APO/A ArN2 is not sensitive to atmospheric transport, as most of the observed spatial variability in the seasonal amplitude of δAPO is compensated by similar variations in δ(Ar/N2). From the relationship between O2/heat and A APO/A ArN2 in the model ensemble, we determine that the atmospheric observations suggest hemispherically distinct O2/heat flux ratios of 3.3 ± 0.3 and 4.7 ± 0.8 nmol J-1 between 40 and 70° in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres respectively, providing a useful constraint for O2 and heat air-sea fluxes in earth system models and observation-based data products.
  • Article
    An assessment of the Atlantic and Arctic sea–air CO2 fluxes, 1990–2009
    (Copernicus Publications on behalf of the European Geosciences Union, 2013-01-29) Schuster, Ute ; McKinley, Galen A. ; Bates, Nicholas R. ; Chevallier, Frédéric ; Doney, Scott C. ; Fay, A. R. ; Gonzalez-Davila, M. ; Gruber, Nicolas ; Jones, S. ; Krijnen, J. ; Landschutzer, Peter ; Lefevre, N. ; Manizza, Manfredi ; Mathis, Jeremy T. ; Metzl, Nicolas ; Olsen, Are ; Rios, Aida F. ; Rodenbeck, C. ; Santana-Casiano, J. M. ; Takahashi, Taro ; Wanninkhof, Rik ; Watson, Andrew J.
    The Atlantic and Arctic Oceans are critical components of the global carbon cycle. Here we quantify the net sea–air CO2 flux, for the first time, across different methodologies for consistent time and space scales for the Atlantic and Arctic basins. We present the long-term mean, seasonal cycle, interannual variability and trends in sea–air CO2 flux for the period 1990 to 2009, and assign an uncertainty to each. We use regional cuts from global observations and modeling products, specifically a pCO2-based CO2 flux climatology, flux estimates from the inversion of oceanic and atmospheric data, and results from six ocean biogeochemical models. Additionally, we use basin-wide flux estimates from surface ocean pCO2 observations based on two distinct methodologies. Our estimate of the contemporary sea–air flux of CO2 (sum of anthropogenic and natural components) by the Atlantic between 40° S and 79° N is −0.49 ± 0.05 Pg C yr−1, and by the Arctic it is −0.12 ± 0.06 Pg C yr−1, leading to a combined sea–air flux of −0.61 ± 0.06 Pg C yr−1 for the two decades (negative reflects ocean uptake). We do find broad agreement amongst methodologies with respect to the seasonal cycle in the subtropics of both hemispheres, but not elsewhere. Agreement with respect to detailed signals of interannual variability is poor, and correlations to the North Atlantic Oscillation are weaker in the North Atlantic and Arctic than in the equatorial region and southern subtropics. Linear trends for 1995 to 2009 indicate increased uptake and generally correspond between methodologies in the North Atlantic, but there is disagreement amongst methodologies in the equatorial region and southern subtropics.