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ArticleSEASTAR: A mission to study ocean submesoscale dynamics and small-scale atmosphere-ocean processes in coastal, shelf and polar seas(Frontiers Media, 2019-08-13) Gommenginger, Christine ; Chapron, Bertrand ; Hogg, Andy ; Buckingham, Christian ; Fox-Kemper, Baylor ; Eriksson, Leif ; Soulat, Francois ; Ubelmann, Clement ; Ocampo-Torres, Francisco ; Nardelli, Bruno Buongiorno ; Griffin, David ; Lopez-Dekker, Paco ; Knudsen, Per ; Andersen, Ole ; Stenseng, Lars ; Stapleton, Neil ; Perrie, Will ; Violante-Carvalho, Nelson ; Schulz-Stellenfleth, Johannes ; Woolf, David K. ; Isern-Fontanet, Jordi ; Ardhuin, Fabrice ; Klein, Patrice ; Mouche, Alexis ; Pascual, Ananda ; Capet, Xavier ; Hauser, Daniele ; Stoffelen, Ad ; Morrow, Rosemary ; Aouf, Lotfi ; Breivik, Øyvind ; Fu, Lee-Lueng ; Johannessen, Johnny A. ; Aksenov, Yevgeny ; Bricheno, Lucy ; Hirschi, Joel ; Martin, Adrien C. H. ; Martin, Adrian P. ; Nurser, A. J. George ; Polton, Jeff ; Wolf, Judith ; Johnsen, Harald ; Soloviev, Alexander ; Jacobs, Gregg A. ; Collard, Fabrice ; Groom, Steve ; Kudryavtsev, Vladimir ; Wilkin, John L. ; Navarro, Victor ; Babanin, Alexander ; Martin, Matthew ; Siddorn, John ; Saulter, Andrew ; Rippeth, Tom P. ; Emery, Bill ; Maximenko, Nikolai ; Romeiser, Roland ; Graber, Hans C. ; Alvera Azcarate, Aida ; Hughes, Chris W. ; Vandemark, Douglas ; da Silva, Jose ; Van Leeuwen, Peter Jan ; Naveira Garabato, Alberto C. ; Gemmrich, Johannes ; Mahadevan, Amala ; Marquez, Jose ; Munro, Yvonne ; Doody, Sam ; Burbidge, GeoffHigh-resolution satellite images of ocean color and sea surface temperature reveal an abundance of ocean fronts, vortices and filaments at scales below 10 km but measurements of ocean surface dynamics at these scales are rare. There is increasing recognition of the role played by small scale ocean processes in ocean-atmosphere coupling, upper-ocean mixing and ocean vertical transports, with advanced numerical models and in situ observations highlighting fundamental changes in dynamics when scales reach 1 km. Numerous scientific publications highlight the global impact of small oceanic scales on marine ecosystems, operational forecasts and long-term climate projections through strong ageostrophic circulations, large vertical ocean velocities and mixed layer re-stratification. Small-scale processes particularly dominate in coastal, shelf and polar seas where they mediate important exchanges between land, ocean, atmosphere and the cryosphere, e.g., freshwater, pollutants. As numerical models continue to evolve toward finer spatial resolution and increasingly complex coupled atmosphere-wave-ice-ocean systems, modern observing capability lags behind, unable to deliver the high-resolution synoptic measurements of total currents, wind vectors and waves needed to advance understanding, develop better parameterizations and improve model validations, forecasts and projections. SEASTAR is a satellite mission concept that proposes to directly address this critical observational gap with synoptic two-dimensional imaging of total ocean surface current vectors and wind vectors at 1 km resolution and coincident directional wave spectra. Based on major recent advances in squinted along-track Synthetic Aperture Radar interferometry, SEASTAR is an innovative, mature concept with unique demonstrated capabilities, seeking to proceed toward spaceborne implementation within Europe and beyond.