Flamant Julien

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  • Article
    Polarization of ocean acoustic normal modes
    (Acoustical Society of America, 2021-09-15) Bonnel, Julien ; Flamant, Julien ; Dall'Osto, David R. ; Le Bihan, Nicolas ; Dahl, Peter H.
    In ocean acoustics, shallow water propagation is conveniently described using normal mode propagation. This article proposes a framework to describe the polarization of normal modes, as measured using a particle velocity sensor in the water column. To do so, the article introduces the Stokes parameters, a set of four real-valued quantities widely used to describe polarization properties in wave physics, notably for light. Stokes parameters of acoustic normal modes are theoretically derived, and a signal processing framework to estimate them is introduced. The concept of the polarization spectrogram, which enables the visualization of the Stokes parameters using data from a single vector sensor, is also introduced. The whole framework is illustrated on simulated data as well as on experimental data collected during the 2017 Seabed Characterization Experiment. By introducing the Stokes framework used in many other fields, the article opens the door to a large set of methods developed and used in other contexts but largely ignored in ocean acoustics.
  • Article
    Broadband properties of potential and kinetic energies in an oceanic waveguide
    (Acoustical Society of America, 2023-05-23) Flamant, Julien ; Bonnel, Julien
    The energetic properties of an acoustic field can be quantified through the potential (Ep) and kinetic (Ek) energies. This article derives broadband properties of Ep and Ek in an oceanic waveguide, with restriction to a far-field context under which the acoustic field can be described by a set of propagating trapped modes. Using a set of reasonable assumptions, it is analytically demonstrated that, when integrated over a wide enough frequency-band, Ep = Ek everywhere in the waveguide, except at four specific depths: z = 0 (sea surface), z = D (seafloor), z = zs (source depth), and z = D -zs (mirrored source depth). Several realistic simulations are also presented to show the relevance of the analytical derivation. It is notably illustrated that, when integrated over third-octave bands, Ep ≡ Ek within 1 dB everywhere in the far-field waveguide, except in the first few meters of the water column (on a dB scale, no significant difference is found between Ep and Ek for z = D, z = zs, and Z = D - Zs).