Siegmann William L.

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William L.

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Now showing 1 - 6 of 6
  • Article
    Effects of front width on acoustic ducting by a continuous curved front over a sloping bottom
    (Acoustical Society of America, 2019-09-30) DeCourcy, Brendan ; Lin, Ying-Tsong ; Siegmann, William L.
    The behavior of sound near an ocean front in a region with wedge bathymetry is examined. The front is parameterized as a zone of variation with inshore and offshore boundaries parallel to a straight coastline. The importance of frontal width and frontal sound speed on the ducting of acoustic energy is examined. Previous analytical studies of sound propagation and parameter sensitivity in an idealized wedge environment use an unphysical but convenient single interface front representation, which is here replaced by a continuous sound speed profile. The continuous profile selected is convenient for analytical investigation, but encourages the use of asymptotic approximation methods which are also described. The analytical solution method is outlined, and numerical results are produced with an emphasis on comparing to the single interface front. These comparisons are made to highlight the strengths and weaknesses of the idealized model for capturing the horizontal ducting effects.
  • Article
    Parameter dependence of acoustic mode quantities in an idealized model for shallow-water nonlinear internal wave ducts
    (Acoustical Society of America, 2019-09-30) Milone, Matthew A. ; DeCourcy, Brendan ; Lin, Ying-Tsong ; Siegmann, William L.
    Nonlinear internal waves in shallow water have significant acoustic impacts and cause three-dimensional ducting effects, for example, energy trapping in a duct between curved wavefronts that propagates over long distances. A normal mode approach applied to a three-dimensional idealized parametric model [Lin, McMahon, Lynch, and Siegmann, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 133(1), 37–49 (2013)] determines the dependence of such effects on parameters of the features. Specifically, an extension of mode number conservation leads to convenient analytical formulas for along-duct (angular) acoustic wavenumbers. The radial modes are classified into five types depending on geometric characteristics, resulting in five distinct formulas to obtain wavenumber approximations. Examples of their dependence on wavefront curvature and duct width, along with benchmark comparisons, demonstrate approximation accuracy over a broad range of physical values, even including situations where transitions in mode types occur with parameter changes. Horizontal-mode transmission loss contours found from approximate and numerically exact wavenumbers agree well in structure and location of intensity features. Cross-sectional plots show only small differences between pattern phases and amplitudes of the two calculations. The efficiency and accuracy of acoustic wavenumber and field approximations, in combination with the mode-type classifications, suggest their application to determining parameter sensitivity and also to other feature models.
  • Article
    Horizontal ducting of sound by curved nonlinear internal gravity waves in the continental shelf areas
    (Acoustical Society of America, 2013-01) Lin, Ying-Tsong ; McMahon, Kara G. ; Lynch, James F. ; Siegmann, William L.
    The acoustic ducting effect by curved nonlinear gravity waves in shallow water is studied through idealized models in this paper. The internal wave ducts are three-dimensional, bounded vertically by the sea surface and bottom, and horizontally by aligned wavefronts. Both normal mode and parabolic equation methods are taken to analyze the ducted sound field. Two types of horizontal acoustic modes can be found in the curved internal wave duct. One is a whispering-gallery type formed by the sound energy trapped along the outer and concave boundary of the duct, and the other is a fully bouncing type due to continual reflections from boundaries in the duct. The ducting condition depends on both internal-wave and acoustic-source parameters, and a parametric study is conducted to derive a general pattern. The parabolic equation method provides full-field modeling of the sound field, so it includes other acoustic effects caused by internal waves, such as mode coupling/scattering and horizontal Lloyd's mirror interference. Two examples are provided to present internal wave ducts with constant curvature and meandering wavefronts.
  • Article
    Approximate formulas and physical interpretations for horizontal acoustic modes in a shelf-slope front model
    (Acoustical Society of America, 2016-07-07) DeCourcy, Brendan ; Lin, Ying-Tsong ; Siegmann, William L.
    The structure and behavior of horizontal acoustic modes for a three-dimensional idealized model of a shelf-slope front are examined analytically. The Wentzel–Kramers–Brillouin–Jeffreys (WKBJ) method is used to obtain convenient simple expressions and to provide physical insight into the structure and behavior of horizontal modes as trapped, leaky, or transition types. Validity regions for WKBJ expressions in terms of slope and frontal parameters are found, and outside the regions the asymptotic formulas for large order and large argument Hankel functions are used. These combined approximations have very good accuracy as shown by comparisons with numerical solutions for modal shapes and horizontal wavenumbers.
  • Article
    Estimating the parameter sensitivity of acoustic mode quantities for an idealized shelf-slope front
    (Acoustical Society of America, 2018-02-06) DeCourcy, Brendan ; Lin, Ying-Tsong ; Siegmann, William L.
    The acoustic modes of an idealized three-dimensional model for a curved shelf-slope ocean front [Lin and Lynch, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 131, EL1–EL7 (2012)] is examined analytically and numerically. The goal is to quantify the influence of environmental and acoustic parameters on acoustic field metrics. This goal is achieved by using conserved quantities of the model, including the dispersion relation and a conservation of mode number. Analytic expressions for the horizontal wave numbers can be extracted by asymptotic approximations and perturbations, leading to accurate and convenient approximations for their parameter dependence. These equations provide the dependence on model parameter changes of both the real horizontal wavenumbers, leading to modal phase speeds and other metrics, and the imaginary parts, leading to modal attenuation coefficients. Further approximations for small parameter changes of these equations characterize the parameter sensitivities and produce assessments of environmental and acoustic influences.
  • Article
    Horizontal Lloyd mirror patterns from straight and curved nonlinear internal waves
    (Acoustical Society of America, 2012-02) McMahon, Kara G. ; Reilly-Raska, L. K. ; Siegmann, William L. ; Lynch, James F. ; Duda, Timothy F.
    Experimental observations and theoretical studies show that nonlinear internal waves occur widely in shallow water and cause acoustic propagation effects including ducting and mode coupling. Horizontal ducting results when acoustic modes travel between internal wave fronts that form waveguide boundaries. For small grazing angles between a mode trajectory and a front, an interference pattern may arise that is a horizontal Lloyd mirror pattern. An analytic description for this feature is provided along with comparisons between results from the formulated model predicting a horizontal Lloyd mirror pattern and an adiabatic mode parabolic equation. Different waveguide models are considered, including boxcar and jump sound speed profiles where change in sound speed is assumed 12 m/s. Modifications to the model are made to include multiple and moving fronts. The focus of this analysis is on different front locations relative to the source as well as on the number of fronts and their curvatures and speeds. Curvature influences mode incidence angles and thereby changes the interference patterns. For sources oriented so that the front appears concave, the areas with interference patterns shrink as curvature increases, while convexly oriented fronts cause patterns to expand.