Chen Xiaobing

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  • Article
    Distribution of postsynaptic density (PSD)-95 and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II at the PSD
    (Society for Neuroscience, 2003-12-03) Petersen, Jennifer D. ; Chen, Xiaobing ; Vinade, Lucia ; Dosemeci, Ayse ; Lisman, John E. ; Reese, Thomas S.
    Postsynaptic densities (PSDs) contain proteins that regulate synaptic transmission. We determined the positions of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and PSD-95 within the three-dimensional structure of isolated PSDs using immunogold labeling, rotary shadowing, and electron microscopic tomography. The results show that all PSDs contain a central mesh immediately underlying the postsynaptic membrane. Label for PSD-95 is found on both the cytoplasmic and cleft sides of this mesh, averaging 12 nm from the cleft side. All PSDs label for PSD-95. The properties of CaMKII labeling are quite different. Label is virtually absent on the cleft sides of PSDs, but can be heavy on the cytoplasmic side at a mean distance of 25 nm from the cleft. In tomograms, CaMKII holoenzymes can be visualized directly, appearing as labeled, tower-like structures reflecting the 20 nm diameter of the holoenzyme. These towers protrude from the cytoplasmic side of the central mesh. There appears to be a local organization of CaMKII, as judged by fact that the nearest-neighbor distances are nearly invariant over a wide range of labeling density for CaMKII. The average density of CaMKII holoenzymes is highly variable, ranging from zero to values approaching a tightly packed state. This variability is significantly higher than that for PSD-95 and is consistent with an information storage role for CaMKII.
  • Preprint
    Palmitoylation regulates glutamate receptor distributions in postsynaptic densities through control of PSD95 conformation and orientation
    ( 2016-08) Jeyifous, Okunola ; Lin, Eric I. ; Chen, Xiaobing ; Antinone, Sarah E. ; Mastro, Ryan ; Drisdel, Renaldo ; Reese, Thomas S. ; Green, William N.
    PSD95 and SAP97 are homologous scaffold proteins with different N-terminal domains, possessing either a palmitoylation site (PSD95) or an L27 domain (SAP97). Here, we measured PSD95 and SAP97 conformation in vitro and in postsynaptic densities (PSDs) using FRET and electron microscopy, and examined how conformation regulated interactions with AMPA-type and NMDAtype glutamate receptors (AMPARs/NMDARs). Palmitoylation of PSD95 changed its conformation from a compact to an extended configuration. PSD95 associated with AMPARs (via TARP subunits) or NMDARs (via GluN2B subunits) only in its palmitoylated and extended conformation. In contrast, SAP97 in its extended conformation associates with NMDARs but not with AMPARs. Within PSDs, PSD95 and SAP97 were largely in the extended conformation, but had different orientations. PSD95 oriented perpendicular to the PSD membrane, with its palmitoylated, N-terminal domain at the membrane. SAP97 oriented parallel to the PSD membrane, likely as a dimer through interactions of its N-terminal, L27 domain. Changing PSD95 palmitoylation in PSDs altered PSD95 and AMPAR levels but did not affect NMDAR levels. These results indicate that in PSDs, PSD95 palmitoylation, conformation and its interactions are dynamic when associated with AMPARs, and more stable when associated with NMDARs. Altogether, our results are consistent with differential regulation of PSD95 palmitoylation in PSDs resulting from the clustering of palmitoylating and depalmitoylating enzymes into AMPAR nanodomains segregated away from NMDAR nanodomains.