Craft Kathleen L.

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Craft
First Name
Kathleen L.
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0000-0001-7313-3187

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Science goals and mission architecture of the Europa Lander mission concept

2022-01-26 , Hand, Kevin P. , Phillips, Cynthia B. , Murray, Alison E. , Garvin, James B. , Maize, Earl H. , Gibbs, Roger G. , Reeves, Glenn , San Martin, A. Miguel , Tan-Wang, Grace H. , Krajewski, Joel , Hurst, Kenneth , Crum, Ray , Kennedy, Brett A. , McElrath, Timothy P. , Gallon, John C. , Sabahi, Dara , Thurman, Sam W. , Goldstein, Barry , Estabrook, Polly , Lee, Steven W. , Dooley, Jennifer A. , Brinckerhoff, William B. , Edgett, Kenneth S. , German, Christopher R. , Hoehler, Tori M. , Hörst, Sarah M. , Lunine, Jonathan I. , Paranicas, Christopher , Nealson, Kenneth H. , Smith, David E. , Templeton, Alexis S. , Russell, Michael J. , Schmidt, Britney E. , Christner, Brent C. , Ehlmann, Bethany L. , Hayes, Alexander , Rhoden, Alyssa R. , Willis, Peter , Yingst, R. Aileen , Craft, Kathleen L. , Cameron, Marissa E. , Nordheim, Tom A. , Pitesky, Jo , Scully, Jennifer , Hofgartner, Jason D. , Sell, Steve W. , Barltrop, Kevin J. , Izraelevitz, Jacob , Brandon, Erik J. , Seong, J. , Jones, John-Paul , Pasalic, Jasmina , Billings, Keith J. , Ruiz, John Paul , Bugga, Ratnakumar V. , Graham, Dan , Arenas, L. A. , Takeyama, Deidre , Drummond, Mai , Aghazarian, Hrand , Andersen, Allen J. , Andersen, Kayla B. , Anderson, E. W. , Babuscia, Alessandra , Backes, Paul G. , Bailey, Elizabeth S. , Balentine, Daniel , Ballard, Christopher G. , Berisford, Daniel F. , Bhandari, Pradeep , Blackwood, Krys , Bolotin, Gary S. , Bovre, Emilee A. , Bowkett, Joseph , Boykins, Kobie T. , Bramble, Michael S. , Brice, Timothy M. , Briggs, Paul , Brinkman, Alexander P. , Brooks, Shawn M. , Buffington, Brent B. , Burns, Brandon , Cable, Morgan L. , Campagnola,Stefano , Cangahuala, Laureano A. , Carr, Gregory A. , Casani, John R. , Chahat, Nacer E. , Chamberlain-Simon, Brendan K. , Cheng, Yun-Ting , Chien, Steve A. , Cook, B. T. , Cooper, Moogega , Dinicola, Michael , Clement, Brian G. , Dean, Zachary S. , Cullimore, Emily A. , Curtis, Aaron G. , de la Croix, Jean-Pierre , Di Pasquale, Peter , Dodd, Emma M. , Dubord, Luke A. , Edlund, Jeffrey A. , Ellyin, Raymond , Emanuel, Blair , Foster, Jeffrey T. , Ganino, Anthony J. , Garner, Gregory J. , Gibson, Matt T. , Gildner, Matt , Glazebrook, Kenneth J. , Greco, Martin E. , Green, W. M. , Hatch, Sara J. , Hetzel, Mark M. , Hoey, William A. , Hofmann, Amy E. , Ionasescu, Rodica , Jain, Abhinandan , Jasper, Jay D. , Johannesen, Jennie R. , Johnson, Glenn K. , Jun, Insoo , Katake, Anup B. , Kim-Castet, So Young , Kim, David Inkyu , Kim, Wousik , Klonicki, Emily F. , Kobeissi, Brad , Kobie, Bryan D. , Kochocki, Joseph , Kokorowski, Michael , Kosberg, Jacob A. , Kriechbaum, Kristopher , Kulkarni, Tejas P. , Lam, Rebekah L. , Landau, Damon F. , Lattimore, Myra A. , Laubach, Sharon L. , Lawler, Christopher R. , Lim, Grace , Li, Jui-Lin , Litwin, Todd E. , Lo, Martin W. , Logan, Cambria A. , Maghasoudi, Elham , Mandrake, Lukas , Marchetti, Yuliya , Marteau, Eloise , Maxwell, Kimberly A. , McNamee, John B. , McIntyre, Ocean , Meacham, Michael , Melko, Joseph P. , Mueller, Juergen , Muliere, David , Mysore, Aprameya , Nash, Jeremy , Ono, Masahiro , Parker, Jay M. , Perkins, Rebecca C. , Petropoulos, Anastassios E. , Gaut, Aaron , Piette Gomez, Marie Y. , Casillas, Raul Polit , Preudhomme, Michael , Pyrzak, Guy , Rapinchuk, Jacqueline , Ratliff, John Martin , Ray, T. L. , Roberts, Eric T. , Roffo, Kenneth , Roth, Duane C. , Russino, Joseph A. , Schmidt, Tyler M. , Schoppers, Marcel J. , Senent, Juan S. , Serricchio, Fred , Sheldon, Douglas J. , Shiraishi, Lori R. , Shirvanian, James , Siegel, Katherine J. , Singh, Gurjeet , Sirota, Allen R. , Skulsky, Eli D. , Stehly, Joseph S. , Strange, Nathan J. , Stevens, Sarah U. , Sunada, Eric T. , Tepsuporn, Scott P. , Tosi, Luis Phillipe C. , Trawny, Nikolas , Uchenik, Igor , Verma, Vandi , Volpe, Richard A. , Wagner, Caleb T. , Wang, D. , Willson, Reg G. , Wolff, John Luke , Wong, A. T. , Zimmer, Aline K. , Sukhatme, Kalyani G. , Bago, Kevin A. , Chen, Yang , Deardorff, Alyssa M. , Kuch, Roger S. , Lim, Christopher , Syvertson, Marguerite L. , Arakaki, Genji A. , Avila, Art , DeBruin, Kevin J. , Frick, Andreas , Harris, Joby R. , Heverly, Matthew C. , Kawata, Jessie M. , Kim‬, Sung-Kyun , Kipp, Devin M. , Murphy, Juliana , Smith, Matthew W. , Spaulding, Matthew D. , Thakker, Rohan , Warner, Noah Z. , Yahnker, Chris R. , Young, M. E. , Magner, Tom , Adams, Danica , Bedini, Peter , Mehr, Lauren , Sheldon, Colin , Vernon, Steven , Bailey, Vince , Briere, Marc , Butler, Michael , Davis, Amanda , Ensor, Susan , Gannon, Michele , Haapala-Chalk, Amanda , Hartka, Ted , Holdridge, Mark , Hong, Albert , Hunt, J. , Iskow, Joe , Kahler, Faith , Murray, Kimberly , Napolillo, David , Norkus, Michael , Pfisterer, Rick , Porter, Jamie , Roth, David , Schwartz, Paul , Wolfarth, Lawrence , Cardiff, Eric , Davis, Anita , Grob, Eric W. , Adam, Jason R. , Betts, Erin , Norwood, Jason , Heller, M. M. , Voskuilen, Tyler , Sakievich, Philip , Gray, L. , Hansen, D. J. , Irick, Kevin W. , Hewson, John C. , Lamb, Joshua , Stacy, S. C. , Brotherton, Chris M. , Tappan, Alexander S. , Benally, Darryl , Thigpen, Hannah , Ortiz, Erick , Sandoval, Dan , Ison, Aaron M. , Warren, M. , Stromberg, Peter G. , Thelen, Paul Mark , Blasy, B. , Nandy, Prabal , Haddad, Alexandria W. , Trujillo, Lynna B. , Wiseley, T. H. , Bell, S. A. , Teske, Nicholas P. , Post, C. , Torres-Castro, Loraine , Grosso, Chris , Wasiolek, Maryla

Europa is a premier target for advancing both planetary science and astrobiology, as well as for opening a new window into the burgeoning field of comparative oceanography. The potentially habitable subsurface ocean of Europa may harbor life, and the globally young and comparatively thin ice shell of Europa may contain biosignatures that are readily accessible to a surface lander. Europa's icy shell also offers the opportunity to study tectonics and geologic cycles across a range of mechanisms and compositions. Here we detail the goals and mission architecture of the Europa Lander mission concept, as developed from 2015 through 2020. The science was developed by the 2016 Europa Lander Science Definition Team (SDT), and the mission architecture was developed by the preproject engineering team, in close collaboration with the SDT. In 2017 and 2018, the mission concept passed its mission concept review and delta-mission concept review, respectively. Since that time, the preproject has been advancing the technologies, and developing the hardware and software, needed to retire risks associated with technology, science, cost, and schedule.

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Science objectives for flagship-class mission concepts for the search for evidence of life at Enceladus

2022-06-08 , MacKenzie, Shannon M. , Neveu, Marc , Davila, Alfonso F. , Lunine, Jonathan I. , Cable, Morgan L. , Phillips-Lander, Charity M. , Eigenbrode, Jennifer L. , Waite, J. Hunter , Craft, Kathleen L. , Hofgartner, Jason D. , McKay, Chris P. , Glein, Christopher R. , Burton, Dana , Kounaves, Samuel P. , Mathies, Richard A. , Vance, Steven D. , Malaska, Michael J. , Gold, Robert , German, Christopher R. , Soderlund, Krista M. , Willis, Peter , Freissinet, Caroline , McEwen, Alfred S. , Brucato, John Robert , de Vera, Jean-Pierre P. , Hoehler, Tori M. , Heldmann, Jennifer

Cassini revealed that Saturn's Moon Enceladus hosts a subsurface ocean that meets the accepted criteria for habitability with bio-essential elements and compounds, liquid water, and energy sources available in the environment. Whether these conditions are sufficiently abundant and collocated to support life remains unknown and cannot be determined from Cassini data. However, thanks to the plume of oceanic material emanating from Enceladus’ south pole, a new mission to Enceladus could search for evidence of life without having to descend through kilometers of ice. In this article, we outline the science motivations for such a successor to Cassini, choosing the primary science goal to be determining whether Enceladus is inhabited and assuming a resource level equivalent to NASA's Flagship-class missions. We selected a set of potential biosignature measurements that are complementary and orthogonal to build a robust case for any life detection result. This result would be further informed by quantifications of the habitability of the environment through geochemical and geophysical investigations into the ocean and ice shell crust. This study demonstrates that Enceladus’ plume offers an unparalleled opportunity for in situ exploration of an Ocean World and that the planetary science and astrobiology community is well equipped to take full advantage of it in the coming decades.

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Surviving in ocean worlds: experimental characterization of fiber optic tethers across Europa-like ice faults and unraveling the sliding behavior of ice

2023-01-09 , Singh, Vishaal , McCarthy, Christine , Silvia, Matthew , Jakuba, Michael V. , Craft, Kathleen L. , Rhoden, Alyssa R. , German, Chris , Koczynski, Theodore A.

As an initial step toward in situ exploration of the interiors of Ocean Worlds to search for life using cryobot architectures, we test how various communication tethers behave under potential Europa-like stress conditions. By freezing two types of pretensioned insulated fiber optic cables inside ice blocks, we simulate tethers being refrozen in a probe’s wake as it traverses through an Ocean World’s ice shell. Using a cryogenic biaxial apparatus, we simulate shear motion on preexisting faults at various velocities and temperatures. These shear tests are used to evaluate the mechanical behavior of ice, characterize the behavior of communication tethers, and explore their limitations for deployment by a melt probe. We determine (a) the maximum shear stress tethers can sustain from an ice fault, prior to failure (viable/unviable regimes for deployment), and (b) optical tether performance for communications. We find that these tethers are fairly robust across a range of temperature and velocity conditions expected on Europa ( T = 95–260 K, velocity = 5 × 10 −7 m s −1 to 3 × 10 −4 m s −1 ). However, damage to the outer jackets of the tethers and stretching of inner fibers at the coldest temperatures tested both indicate a need for further tether prototype development. Overall, these studies constrain the behavior of optical tethers for use at Ocean Worlds, improve the ability to probe thermomechanical properties of dynamic ice shells likely to be encountered by landed missions, and guide future technology development for accessing the interiors of (potentially habitable ± inhabited) Ocean Worlds.