de Szoeke Simon

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de Szoeke
First Name
Simon
ORCID
0000-0003-2017-473X

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Now showing 1 - 7 of 7
  • Article
    Challenges and prospects for reducing coupled climate model SST biases in the eastern tropical Atlantic and Pacific Oceans : the U.S. CLIVAR Eastern Tropical Oceans Synthesis Working Group
    (American Meteorological Society, 2017-01-12) Zuidema, Paquita ; Chang, Ping ; Medeiros, Brian ; Kirtman, Benjamin ; Mechoso, Roberto ; Schneider, Edwin K. ; Toniazzo, Thomas ; Richter, Ingo ; Small, R. Justin ; Bellomo, Katinka ; Brandt, Peter ; de Szoeke, Simon ; Farrar, J. Thomas ; Jung, Eunsil ; Kato, Seiji ; Li, Mingkui ; Patricola, Christina ; Wang, Zaiyu ; Wood, Robert ; Xu, Zhao
    Well-known problems trouble coupled general circulation models of the eastern Atlantic and Pacific Ocean basins. Model climates are significantly more symmetric about the equator than is observed. Model sea surface temperatures are biased warm south and southeast of the equator, and the atmosphere is too rainy within a band south of the equator. Near-coastal eastern equatorial SSTs are too warm, producing a zonal SST gradient in the Atlantic opposite in sign to that observed. The U.S. Climate Variability and Predictability Program (CLIVAR) Eastern Tropical Ocean Synthesis Working Group (WG) has pursued an updated assessment of coupled model SST biases, focusing on the surface energy balance components, on regional error sources from clouds, deep convection, winds, and ocean eddies; on the sensitivity to model resolution; and on remote impacts. Motivated by the assessment, the WG makes the following recommendations: 1) encourage identification of the specific parameterizations contributing to the biases in individual models, as these can be model dependent; 2) restrict multimodel intercomparisons to specific processes; 3) encourage development of high-resolution coupled models with a concurrent emphasis on parameterization development of finer-scale ocean and atmosphere features, including low clouds; 4) encourage further availability of all surface flux components from buoys, for longer continuous time periods, in persistently cloudy regions; and 5) focus on the eastern basin coastal oceanic upwelling regions, where further opportunities for observational–modeling synergism exist.
  • Article
    Measurements from the RV Ronald H. Brown and related platforms as part of the Atlantic Tradewind Ocean-Atmosphere Mesoscale Interaction Campaign (ATOMIC)
    (Copernicus Publications, 2021-04-29) Quinn, Patricia K. ; Thompson, Elizabeth ; Coffman, Derek J. ; Baidar, Sunil ; Bariteau, Ludovic ; Bates, Timothy S. ; Bigorre, Sebastien P. ; Brewer, Alan ; de Boer, Gijs ; de Szoeke, Simon P. ; Drushka, Kyla ; Foltz, Gregory R. ; Intrieri, Janet ; Iyer, Suneil ; Fairall, Christopher W. ; Gaston, Cassandra J. ; Jansen, Friedhelm ; Johnson, James E. ; Krüger, Ovid O. ; Marchbanks, Richard D. ; Moran, Kenneth P. ; Noone, David ; Pezoa, Sergio ; Pincus, Robert ; Plueddemann, Albert J. ; Pöhlker, Mira L. ; Pöschl, Ulrich ; Quinones Melendez, Estefania ; Royer, Haley M. ; Szczodrak, Malgorzata ; Thomson, Jim ; Upchurch, Lucia M. ; Zhang, Chidong ; Zhang, Dongxiao ; Zuidema, Paquita
    The Atlantic Tradewind Ocean-Atmosphere Mesoscale Interaction Campaign (ATOMIC) took place from 7 January to 11 July 2020 in the tropical North Atlantic between the eastern edge of Barbados and 51∘ W, the longitude of the Northwest Tropical Atlantic Station (NTAS) mooring. Measurements were made to gather information on shallow atmospheric convection, the effects of aerosols and clouds on the ocean surface energy budget, and mesoscale oceanic processes. Multiple platforms were deployed during ATOMIC including the NOAA RV Ronald H. Brown (RHB) (7 January to 13 February) and WP-3D Orion (P-3) aircraft (17 January to 10 February), the University of Colorado's Robust Autonomous Aerial Vehicle-Endurant Nimble (RAAVEN) uncrewed aerial system (UAS) (24 January to 15 February), NOAA- and NASA-sponsored Saildrones (12 January to 11 July), and Surface Velocity Program Salinity (SVPS) surface ocean drifters (23 January to 29 April). The RV Ronald H. Brown conducted in situ and remote sensing measurements of oceanic and atmospheric properties with an emphasis on mesoscale oceanic–atmospheric coupling and aerosol–cloud interactions. In addition, the ship served as a launching pad for Wave Gliders, Surface Wave Instrument Floats with Tracking (SWIFTs), and radiosondes. Details of measurements made from the RV Ronald H. Brown, ship-deployed assets, and other platforms closely coordinated with the ship during ATOMIC are provided here. These platforms include Saildrone 1064 and the RAAVEN UAS as well as the Barbados Cloud Observatory (BCO) and Barbados Atmospheric Chemistry Observatory (BACO). Inter-platform comparisons are presented to assess consistency in the data sets. Data sets from the RV Ronald H. Brown and deployed assets have been quality controlled and are publicly available at NOAA's National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) data archive (https://www.ncei.noaa.gov/archive/accession/ATOMIC-2020, last access: 2 April 2021). Point-of-contact information and links to individual data sets with digital object identifiers (DOIs) are provided herein.
  • Technical Report
    Stratus Ocean Reference Station (20˚S, 85˚W) mooring recovery and deployment cruise STRATUS 8 R/V Ronald H. Brown cruise 07-09 October 9, 2007–November 6, 2007
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 2007-12) Whelan, Sean P. ; Lord, Jeffrey ; Grados, Carmen ; Yu, Lisan ; Morales, Luis ; Galbraith, Nancy R. ; de Szoeke, Simon P. ; O'Leary, Megan ; Weller, Robert A. ; Bouchard, Paul R. ; Farrar, J. Thomas ; Bradley, Frank
    The Ocean Reference Station at 20°S, 85°W under the stratus clouds west of northern Chile is being maintained to provide ongoing climate-quality records of surface meteorology (air-sea fluxes of heat, freshwater, and momentum), and of upper ocean temperature, salinity, and velocity variability. The Stratus Ocean Reference Station (ORS Stratus) is supported by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA) Climate Observation Program. It is recovered and redeployed annually, with cruises between October and December. During the October 2007 cruise on the NOAA ship Ronald H. Brown to the ORS Stratus site, the primary activities were recovery of the Stratus 7 WHOI surface mooring that had been deployed in October 2006, deployment of a new (Stratus 8) WHOI surface mooring at that site; in-situ calibration of the buoy meteorological sensors by comparison with instrumentation put on board the ship by staff of the NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL); and observations of the stratus clouds and lower atmosphere by NOAA ESRL. Meteorological sensors on a buoy for the Pacific tsunami warning system were also serviced, in collaboration with the Hydrographic and Oceanographic Service of the Chilean Navy (SHOA). The DART (Deep-Ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunami) carries IMET sensors and subsurface oceanographic instruments. A new DART II buoy was deployed north of the STRATUS buoy, by personnel from the National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) Argo floats and drifters were launched, and CTD casts carried out during the cruise. The ORS Stratus buoys are equipped with two Improved Meteorological (IMET) systems, which provide surface wind speed and direction, air temperature, relative humidity, barometric pressure, incoming shortwave radiation, incoming longwave radiation, precipitation rate, and sea surface temperature. Additionally, the Stratus 8 buoy received a partial pressure of CO2 detector from the Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory (PMEL). IMET data are made available in near real time using satellite telemetry. The mooring line carries instruments to measure ocean salinity, temperature, and currents. The ESRL instrumentation used during the 2007 cruise included cloud radar, radiosonde balloons, and sensors for mean and turbulent surface meteorology. Finally, the cruise hosted a teacher participating in NOAA’s Teacher at Sea Program.
  • Technical Report
    Stratus 9/VOCALS ninth setting of the Stratus Ocean Reference Station & VOCALS Regional Experiment
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 2009-04) Whelan, Sean P. ; Lord, Jeffrey ; Galbraith, Nancy R. ; Weller, Robert A. ; Farrar, J. Thomas ; Grant, David ; Grados, Carmen ; de Szoeke, Simon P. ; Moffat, Carlos F. ; Zappa, Christopher J. ; Yang, Mingxi ; Straneo, Fiamma ; Fairall, Christopher W. ; Zuidema, Paquita ; Wolfe, Dan ; Miller, Matthew ; Covert, David
    The Ocean Reference Station at 20°S, 85°W under the stratus clouds west of northern Chile is being maintained to provide ongoing climate-quality records of surface meteorology; air-sea fluxes of heat, freshwater, and momentum; and of upper ocean temperature, salinity, and velocity variability. The Stratus Ocean Reference Station (ORS Stratus) is supported by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA) Climate Observation Program. It is recovered and redeployed annually, with cruises that have come between October and December. During the 2008 cruise on the NOAA ship Ronald H. Brown to the ORS Stratus site, the primary activities were recovery of the Stratus 8 WHOI surface mooring that had been deployed in October 2007, deployment of a new (Stratus 9) WHOI surface mooring at that site; in-situ calibration of the buoy meteorological sensors by comparison with instrumentation put on board by staff of the NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL); and observations of the stratus clouds and lower atmosphere by NOAA ESRL. A buoy for the Pacific tsunami warning system was also serviced in collaboration with the Hydrographic and Oceanographic Service of the Chilean Navy (SHOA). The DART (Deep-Ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunami) carries IMET sensors and subsurface oceanographic instruments. A DART II buoy was deployed north of the STRATUS buoy, by personnel from the National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) Argo floats and drifters were launched, and CTD casts carried out during the cruise. The ORS Stratus buoys are equipped with two Improved Meteorological (IMET) systems, which provide surface wind speed and direction, air temperature, relative humidity, barometric pressure, incoming shortwave radiation, incoming longwave radiation, precipitation rate, and sea surface temperature. Additionally, the Stratus 8 buoy received a partial CO2 detector from the Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory (PMEL). IMET data are made available in near real time using satellite telemetry. The mooring line carries instruments to measure ocean salinity, temperature, and currents. The ESRL instrumentation used during the 2008 cruise included cloud radar, radiosonde balloons, and sensors for mean and turbulent surface meteorology. Finally, the cruise hosted a teacher participating in NOAA’s Teacher at Sea Program.
  • Article
    Ocean–cloud–atmosphere–land interactions in the southeastern Pacific : the VOCALS Program
    (American Meteorological Society, 2014-03) Mechoso, C. R. ; Wood, R. ; Weller, Robert A. ; Bretherton, Christopher S. ; Clarke, A. D. ; Coe, Hugh ; Fairall, Christopher W. ; Farrar, J. Thomas ; Feingold, Graham ; Garreaud, R. ; Grados, Carmen ; McWilliams, James C. ; de Szoeke, Simon P. ; Yuter, Sandra ; Zuidema, Paquita
    The present paper describes the Variability of the American Monsoon Systems (VAMOS) Ocean–Cloud–Atmosphere–Land Study (VOCALS), an international research program focused on the improved understanding and modeling of the southeastern Pacific (SEP) climate system on diurnal to interannual time scales. In the framework of the SEP climate, VOCALS has two fundamental objectives: 1) improved simulations by coupled atmosphere–ocean general circulation models (CGCMs), with an emphasis on reducing systematic errors in the region; and 2) improved estimates of the indirect effects of aerosols on low clouds and climate, with an emphasis on the more precise quantification of those effects. VOCALS major scientific activities are outlined, and selected achievements are highlighted. Activities described include monitoring in the region, a large international field campaign (the VOCALS Regional Experiment), and two model assessments. The program has already produced significant advances in the understanding of major issues in the SEP: the coastal circulation and the diurnal cycle, the ocean heat budget, factors controlling precipitation and formation of pockets of open cells in stratocumulus decks, aerosol impacts on clouds, and estimation of the first aerosol indirect effect. The paper concludes with a brief presentation on VOCALS contributions to community capacity building before a summary of scientific findings and remaining questions.
  • Article
    EUREC4A
    (Copernicus Publications, 2021-08-25) Stevens, Bjorn ; Bony, Sandrine ; Farrell, David ; Ament, Felix ; Blyth, Alan ; Fairall, Christopher W. ; Karstensen, Johannes ; Quinn, Patricia K. ; Speich, Sabrina ; Acquistapace, Claudia ; Aemisegger, Franziska ; Albright, Anna Lea ; Bellenger, Hugo ; Bodenschatz, Eberhard ; Caesar, Kathy-Ann ; Chewitt-Lucas, Rebecca ; de Boer, Gijs ; Delanoë, Julien ; Denby, Leif ; Ewald, Florian ; Fildier, Benjamin ; Forde, Marvin ; George, Geet ; Gross, Silke ; Hagen, Martin ; Hausold, Andrea ; Heywood, Karen J. ; Hirsch, Lutz ; Jacob, Marek ; Jansen, Friedhelm ; Kinne, Stefan ; Klocke, Daniel ; Kölling, Tobias ; Konow, Heike ; Lothon, Marie ; Mohr, Wiebke ; Naumann, Ann Kristin ; Nuijens, Louise ; Olivier, Léa ; Pincus, Robert ; Pöhlker, Mira L. ; Reverdin, Gilles ; Roberts, Gregory ; Schnitt, Sabrina ; Schulz, Hauke ; Siebesma, Pier ; Stephan, Claudia Christine ; Sullivan, Peter P. ; Touzé-Peiffer, Ludovic ; Vial, Jessica ; Vogel, Raphaela ; Zuidema, Paquita ; Alexander, Nicola ; Alves, Lyndon ; Arixi, Sophian ; Asmath, Hamish ; Bagheri, Gholamhossein ; Baier, Katharina ; Bailey, Adriana ; Baranowski, Dariusz ; Baron, Alexandre ; Barrau, Sébastien ; Barrett, Paul A. ; Batier, Frédéric ; Behrendt, Andreas ; Bendinger, Arne ; Beucher, Florent ; Bigorre, Sebastien P. ; Blades, Edmund ; Blossey, Peter ; Bock, Olivier ; Böing, Steven ; Bosser, Pierre ; Bourras, Denis ; Bouruet-Aubertot, Pascale ; Bower, Keith ; Branellec, Pierre ; Branger, Hubert ; Brennek, Michal ; Brewer, Alan ; Brilouet, Pierre-Etienne ; Brügmann, Björn ; Buehler, Stefan A. ; Burke, Elmo ; Burton, Ralph ; Calmer, Radiance ; Canonici, Jean-Christophe ; Carton, Xavier ; Cato, Gregory, Jr. ; Charles, Jude Andre ; Chazette, Patrick ; Chen, Yanxu ; Chilinski, Michal T. ; Choularton, Thomas ; Chuang, Patrick ; Clarke, Shamal ; Coe, Hugh ; Cornet, Céline ; Coutris, Pierre ; Couvreux, Fleur ; Crewell, Susanne ; Cronin, Timothy W. ; Cui, Zhiqiang ; Cuypers, Yannis ; Daley, Alton ; Damerell, Gillian M. ; Dauhut, Thibaut ; Deneke, Hartwig ; Desbios, Jean-Philippe ; Dörner, Steffen ; Donner, Sebastian ; Douet, Vincent ; Drushka, Kyla ; Dütsch, Marina ; Ehrlich, André ; Emanuel, Kerry A. ; Emmanouilidis, Alexandros ; Etienne, Jean-Claude ; Etienne-Leblanc, Sheryl ; Faure, Ghislain ; Feingold, Graham ; Ferrero, Luca ; Fix, Andreas ; Flamant, Cyrille ; Flatau, Piotr Jacek ; Foltz, Gregory R. ; Forster, Linda ; Furtuna, Iulian ; Gadian, Alan ; Galewsky, Joseph ; Gallagher, Martin ; Gallimore, Peter ; Gaston, Cassandra J. ; Gentemann, Chelle L. ; Geyskens, Nicolas ; Giez, Andreas ; Gollop, John ; Gouirand, Isabelle ; Gourbeyre, Christophe ; de Graaf, Dörte ; de Graaf, Geiske E. ; Grosz, Robert ; Güttler, Johannes ; Gutleben, Manuel ; Hall, Kashawn ; Harris, George ; Helfer, Kevin C. ; Henze, Dean ; Herbert, Calvert ; Holanda, Bruna ; Ibanez-Landeta, Antonio ; Intrieri, Janet ; Iyer, Suneil ; Julien, Fabrice ; Kalesse, Heike ; Kazil, Jan ; Kellman, Alexander ; Kidane, Abiel T. ; Kirchner, Ulrike ; Klingebiel, Marcus ; Körner, Mareike ; Kremper, Leslie Ann ; Kretzschmar, Jan ; Krüger, Ovid O. ; Kumala, Wojciech ; Kurz, Armin ; L'Hégareta, Pierre ; Labaste, Matthieu ; Lachlan-Cope, Thomas ; Laing, Arlene ; Landschützer, Peter ; Lang, Theresa ; Lange, Diego ; Lange, Ingo ; Laplace, Clément ; Lavik, Gauke ; Laxenaire, Rémi ; Le Bihan, Caroline ; Leandro, Mason ; Lefevre, Nathalie ; Lena, Marius ; Lenschow, Donald ; Li, Qiang ; Lloyd, Gary ; Los, Sebastian ; Losi, Niccolò ; Lovell, Oscar ; Luneau, Christopher ; Makuch, Przemyslaw ; Malinowski, Szymon ; Manta, Gaston ; Marinou, Eleni ; Marsden, Nicholas ; Masson, Sebastien ; Maury, Nicolas ; Mayer, Bernhard ; Mayers-Als, Margarette ; Mazel, Christophe ; McGeary, Wayne ; McWilliams, James C. ; Mech, Mario ; Mehlmann, Melina ; Meroni, Agostino Niyonkuru ; Mieslinger, Theresa ; Minikin, Andreas ; Minnett, Peter J. ; Möller, Gregor ; Morfa Avalos, Yanmichel ; Muller, Caroline ; Musat, Ionela ; Napoli, Anna ; Neuberger, Almuth ; Noisel, Christophe ; Noone, David ; Nordsiek, Freja ; Nowak, Jakub L. ; Oswald, Lothar ; Parker, Douglas J. ; Peck, Carolyn ; Person, Renaud ; Philippi, Miriam ; Plueddemann, Albert J. ; Pöhlker, Christopher ; Pörtge, Veronika ; Pöschl, Ulrich ; Pologne, Lawrence ; Posyniak, Michał ; Prange, Marc ; Quinones Melendez, Estefania ; Radtke, Jule ; Ramage, Karim ; Reimann, Jens ; Renault, Lionel ; Reus, Klaus ; Reyes, Ashford ; Ribbe, Joachim ; Ringel, Maximilian ; Ritschel, Markus ; Rocha, Cesar B. ; Rochetin, Nicolas ; Röttenbacher, Johannes ; Rollo, Callum ; Royer, Haley M. ; Sadoulet, Pauline ; Saffin, Leo ; Sandiford, Sanola ; Sandu, Irina ; Schäfer, Michael ; Schemann, Vera ; Schirmacher, Imke ; Schlenczek, Oliver ; Schmidt, Jerome M. ; Schröder, Marcel ; Schwarzenboeck, Alfons ; Sealy, Andrea ; Senff, Christoph J. ; Serikov, Ilya ; Shohan, Samkeyat ; Siddle, Elizabeth ; Smirnov, Alexander ; Späth, Florian ; Spooner, Branden ; Stolla, M. Katharina ; Szkółka, Wojciech ; de Szoeke, Simon P. ; Tarot, Stéphane ; Tetoni, Eleni ; Thompson, Elizabeth ; Thomson, Jim ; Tomassini, Lorenzo ; Totems, Julien ; Ubele, Alma Anna ; Villiger, Leonie ; von Arx, Jan ; Wagner, Thomas ; Walther, Andi ; Webber, Ben ; Wendisch, Manfred ; Whitehall, Shanice ; Wiltshire, Anton ; Wing, Allison A. ; Wirth, Martin ; Wiskandt, Jonathan ; Wolf, Kevin ; Worbes, Ludwig ; Wright, Ethan ; Young, Shanea ; Zhang, Chidong ; Zhang, Dongxiao ; Ziemen, Florian ; Zinner, Tobias ; Zöger, Martin
    The science guiding the EUREC4A campaign and its measurements is presented. EUREC4A comprised roughly 5 weeks of measurements in the downstream winter trades of the North Atlantic – eastward and southeastward of Barbados. Through its ability to characterize processes operating across a wide range of scales, EUREC4A marked a turning point in our ability to observationally study factors influencing clouds in the trades, how they will respond to warming, and their link to other components of the earth system, such as upper-ocean processes or the life cycle of particulate matter. This characterization was made possible by thousands (2500) of sondes distributed to measure circulations on meso- (200 km) and larger (500 km) scales, roughly 400 h of flight time by four heavily instrumented research aircraft; four global-class research vessels; an advanced ground-based cloud observatory; scores of autonomous observing platforms operating in the upper ocean (nearly 10 000 profiles), lower atmosphere (continuous profiling), and along the air–sea interface; a network of water stable isotopologue measurements; targeted tasking of satellite remote sensing; and modeling with a new generation of weather and climate models. In addition to providing an outline of the novel measurements and their composition into a unified and coordinated campaign, the six distinct scientific facets that EUREC4A explored – from North Brazil Current rings to turbulence-induced clustering of cloud droplets and its influence on warm-rain formation – are presented along with an overview of EUREC4A's outreach activities, environmental impact, and guidelines for scientific practice. Track data for all platforms are standardized and accessible at https://doi.org/10.25326/165 (Stevens, 2021), and a film documenting the campaign is provided as a video supplement.
  • Article
    Bay of Bengal intraseasonal oscillations and the 2018 monsoon onset
    (American Meteorological Society, 2021-10-01) Shroyer, Emily L. ; Tandon, Amit ; Sengupta, Debasis ; Fernando, Harindra J. S. ; Lucas, Andrew J. ; Farrar, J. Thomas ; Chattopadhyay, Rajib ; de Szoeke, Simon P. ; Flatau, Maria ; Rydbeck, Adam ; Wijesekera, Hemantha W. ; McPhaden, Michael J. ; Seo, Hyodae ; Subramanian, Aneesh C. ; Venkatesan, Ramasamy ; Joseph, Jossia K. ; Ramsundaram, S. ; Gordon, Arnold L. ; Bohman, Shannon M. ; Pérez, Jaynise ; Simoes-Sousa, Iury T. ; Jayne, Steven R. ; Todd, Robert E. ; Bhat, G. S. ; Lankhorst, Matthias ; Schlosser, Tamara L. ; Adams, Katherine ; Jinadasa, S. U. P. ; Mathur, Manikandan ; Mohapatra, Mrutyunjay ; Rama Rao, E. Pattabhi ; Sahai, Atul Kumar ; Sharma, Rashmi ; Lee, Craig ; Rainville, Luc ; Cherian, Deepak A. ; Cullen, Kerstin ; Centurioni, Luca R. ; Hormann, Verena ; MacKinnon, Jennifer A. ; Send, Uwe ; Anutaliya, Arachaporn ; Waterhouse, Amy F. ; Black, Garrett S. ; Dehart, Jeremy A. ; Woods, Kaitlyn M. ; Creegan, Edward ; Levy, Gad ; Kantha, Lakshmi ; Subrahmanyam, Bulusu
    In the Bay of Bengal, the warm, dry boreal spring concludes with the onset of the summer monsoon and accompanying southwesterly winds, heavy rains, and variable air–sea fluxes. Here, we summarize the 2018 monsoon onset using observations collected through the multinational Monsoon Intraseasonal Oscillations in the Bay of Bengal (MISO-BoB) program between the United States, India, and Sri Lanka. MISO-BoB aims to improve understanding of monsoon intraseasonal variability, and the 2018 field effort captured the coupled air–sea response during a transition from active-to-break conditions in the central BoB. The active phase of the ∼20-day research cruise was characterized by warm sea surface temperature (SST > 30°C), cold atmospheric outflows with intermittent heavy rainfall, and increasing winds (from 2 to 15 m s−1). Accumulated rainfall exceeded 200 mm with 90% of precipitation occurring during the first week. The following break period was both dry and clear, with persistent 10–12 m s−1 wind and evaporation of 0.2 mm h−1. The evolving environmental state included a deepening ocean mixed layer (from ∼20 to 50 m), cooling SST (by ∼1°C), and warming/drying of the lower to midtroposphere. Local atmospheric development was consistent with phasing of the large-scale intraseasonal oscillation. The upper ocean stores significant heat in the BoB, enough to maintain SST above 29°C despite cooling by surface fluxes and ocean mixing. Comparison with reanalysis indicates biases in air–sea fluxes, which may be related to overly cool prescribed SST. Resolution of such biases offers a path toward improved forecasting of transition periods in the monsoon.