Mayer Larry A.

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Mayer
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Larry A.
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  • Article
    Mine burial experiments at the Martha’s Vineyard Coastal Observatory
    (IEEE, 2007-01) Traykovski, Peter A. ; Richardson, Michael D. ; Mayer, Larry A. ; Irish, James D.
    Several experiments to measure postimpact burial of seafloor mines by scour and fill have been conducted near the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution's Martha's Vineyard Coastal Observatory (MVCO, Edgartown, MA). The sedimentary environment at MVCO consists of a series of rippled scour depressions (RSDs), which are large scale bedforms with alternating areas of coarse and fine sand. This allows simultaneous mine burial experiments in both coarse and fine sand under almost identical hydrodynamic forcing conditions. Two preliminary sets of mine scour burial experiments were conducted during winters 2001?2002 in fine sand and 2002?2003 in coarse sand with a single optically instrumented mine in the field of view of a rotary sidescan sonar. From October 2003 to April of 2004, ten instrumented mines were deployed along with several sonar systems to image mine behavior and to characterize bedform and oceanographic processes. In fine sand, the sonar imagery of the mines revealed that large scour pits form around the mines during energetic wave events. Mines fell into their own scour pits, aligned with the dominant wave crests and became level with the ambient seafloor after several energetic wave events. In quiescent periods, after the energetic wave events, the scour pits episodically infilled with mud. After several scour and infilling events, the scour pits were completely filled and a layer of fine sand covered both the mines and the scour pits, leaving no visible evidence of the mines. In the coarse sand, mines were observed to bury until the exposed height above the ripple crests was approximately the same as the large wave orbital ripple height (wavelengths of 50?125 cm and heights of 10?20 cm). A hypothesis for the physical mechanism responsible for this partial burial in the presence of large bedforms is that the mines bury until they present roughly the same hydrodynamic roughness as the orbital-scale bedforms present in coarse sand.
  • Article
    Protocols for calibrating multibeam sonar
    (Acoustical Society of America, 2005-04) Foote, Kenneth G. ; Chu, Dezhang ; Hammar, Terence R. ; Baldwin, Kenneth C. ; Mayer, Larry A. ; Hufnagle, Lawrence C. ; Jech, J. Michael
    Development of protocols for calibrating multibeam sonar by means of the standard-target method is documented. Particular systems used in the development work included three that provide the water-column signals, namely the SIMRAD SM2000/90- and 200-kHz sonars and RESON SeaBat 8101 sonar, with operating frequency of 240 kHz. Two facilities were instrumented specifically for the work: a sea well at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution and a large, indoor freshwater tank at the University of New Hampshire. Methods for measuring the transfer characteristics of each sonar, with transducers attached, are described and illustrated with measurement results. The principal results, however, are the protocols themselves. These are elaborated for positioning the target, choosing the receiver gain function, quantifying the system stability, mapping the directionality in the plane of the receiving array and in the plane normal to the central axis, measuring the directionality of individual beams, and measuring the nearfield response. General preparations for calibrating multibeam sonars and a method for measuring the receiver response electronically are outlined. Advantages of multibeam sonar calibration and outstanding problems, such as that of validation of the performance of multibeam sonars as configured for use, are mentioned.
  • Article
    High-resolution mapping of mines and ripples at the Martha's Vineyard Coastal Observatory
    (IEEE, 2007-01) Mayer, Larry A. ; Raymond, Richard ; Glang, Gerd ; Richardson, Michael D. ; Traykovski, Peter A. ; Trembanis, Arthur C.
    High-resolution multibeam sonar and state-of-the- art data processing and visualization techniques have been used to quantify the evolution of seafloor morphology and the degree of burial of instrumented mines and mine-shapes as part of the U.S. Office of Naval Research (ONR, Arlington, VA) mine burial experiment at the Martha's Vineyard Coastal Observatory (MVCO, Edgartown, MA). Four surveys were conducted over two years at the experiment site with a 455-kHz, Reson 8125 dynamically focused multibeam sonar. The region is characterized by shore-perpendicular alternating zones of coarse-grained sand with 5?25-cm-high, wave orbital-scale ripples, and zones of finer grained sands with smaller (2?5-cm-high) anorbital ripples and, on occasion, medium scale 10?20-cm-high, chaotic or hummocky bedforms. The boundaries between the zones appear to respond over periods of days to months to the predominant wave direction and energy. Smoothing and small shifts of the boundaries to the northeast take place during fair-weather wave conditions while erosion (scalloping of the boundary) and shifts to the north-northwest occur during storm conditions. The multibeam sonar was also able to resolve changes in the orientation and height of fields of ripples that were directly related to the differences in the prevailing wave direction and energy. The alignment of the small scale bedforms with the prevailing wave conditions appears to occur rapidly (on the order of hours or days) when the wave conditions exceed the threshold of sediment motion (most of the time for the fine sands) and particularly during moderate storm conditions. During storm events, erosional ?windows? to the coarse layer below appear in the fine-grained sands. These ?window? features are oriented parallel to the prevailing wave direction and reveal orbital-scale ripples that are oriented perpendicular to the prevailing wave direction. The resolution of the multibeam sonar combined with 3-D visualization techniques provided realistic looking images of both both instrumented and noninstrumented mines and mine-like objects (including bomb, Manta, and Rockan shapes) that were dimensionally correct and enabled unambiguous identification of the mine type. In two of the surveys (October and December 2004), the mines in the fine-grained sands scoured into local pits but were still perfectly visible and identifiable with the multibeam sonar. In the April 2004 survey, the mines were not visible and apparently were completely buried. In the coarse-grained sand zone, the mines were extremely difficult to detect after initial scour burial as the mines bury until they present the same hydrodynamic roughness as the orbital-scale bedforms and thus blend into the ambient ripple field. Given the relatively large, 3-D, spatial coverage of the multibeam sonar along with its ability to measure the depth of the seafloor and the depth and dimensions of the mine, it is possible to measure directly, the burial by depth and burial by surface area of the mines. The 3-D nature of the multibeam sonar data also allows the direct determination of the volume of material removed from a scour pit.