McIntyre Cameron P.

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Cameron P.

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  • Preprint
    Temporal deconvolution of vascular plant-derived fatty acids exported from terrestrial watersheds
    ( 2018-09) Vonk, Jorien E. ; Drenzek, Nicholas J. ; Hughen, Konrad A. ; Stanley, Rachel H. R. ; McIntyre, Cameron P. ; Montlucon, Daniel B. ; Giosan, Liviu ; Southon, John R. ; Santos, Guaciara M. ; Druffel, Ellen R. M. ; Andersson, August A. ; Sköld, Martin ; Eglinton, Timothy I.
    Relatively little is known about the amount of time that lapses between the photosynthetic fixation of carbon by vascular land plants and its incorporation into the marine sedimentary record, yet the dynamics of terrestrial carbon sequestration have important implications for the carbon cycle. Vascular plant carbon may encounter multiple potential intermediate storage pools and transport trajectories, and the age of vascular plant carbon accumulating in marine sediments will reflect these different predepositional histories. Here, we examine down-core 14C profiles of higher plant leaf waxderived fatty acids isolated from high fidelity sedimentary sequences spanning the socalled “bomb-spike”, and encompassing a ca. 60-degree latitudinal gradient from tropical (Cariaco Basin), temperate (Saanich Inlet), and polar (Mackenzie Delta) watersheds to constrain integrated vascular plant carbon storage/transport times (“residence times”). Using a modeling framework, we find that, in addition to a "young" (conditionally defined as < 50 y) carbon pool, an old pool of compounds comprises 49 to 78 % of the fractional contribution of organic carbon (OC) and exhibits variable ages reflective of the environmental setting. For the Mackenzie Delta sediments, we find a mean age of the old pool of 28 ky (±9.4, standard deviation), indicating extensive pre-aging in permafrost soils, whereas the old pools in Saanich Inlet and Cariaco Basin sediments are younger, 7.9 (±5.0) and 2.4 (±0.50) to 3.2 (±0.54) ky, respectively, indicating less protracted storage in terrestrial reservoirs. The "young" pool showed clear annual contributions for Saanich Inlet and Mackenzie Delta sediments (comprising 24% and 16% of this pool, respectively), likely reflecting episodic transport of OC from steep hillside slopes surrounding Saanich Inlet and annual spring flood deposition in the Mackenzie Delta, respectively. Contributions of 5-10 year old OC to the Cariaco Basin show a short delay of OC inflow, potentially related to transport time to the offshore basin. Modeling results also indicate that the Mackenzie Delta has an influx of young but decadal material (20-30 years of age), pointing to the presence of an intermediate reservoir. Overall, these results show that a significant fraction of vascular plant C undergoes pre-aging in terrestrial reservoirs prior to accumulation in deltaic and marine sediments. The age distribution, reflecting both storage and transport times, likely depends on landscape-specific factors such as local topography, hydrographic characteristics, and mean annual temperature of the catchment, all of which affect the degree of soil buildup and preservation. We show that catchment-specific carbon residence times across landscapes can vary by an order of magnitude, with important implications both for carbon cycle studies and for the interpretation of molecular terrestrial paleoclimate records preserved in sedimentary sequences.
  • Article
    Climate control on terrestrial biospheric carbon turnover
    (National Academy of Sciences, 2021-02-23) Eglinton, Timothy I. ; Galy, Valier ; Hemingway, Jordon D. ; Feng, Xiaojuan ; Bao, Hongyan ; Blattmann, Thomas M. ; Dickens, Angela F. ; Gies, Hannah ; Giosan, Liviu ; Haghipour, Negar ; Hou, Pengfei ; Lupker, Maarten ; McIntyre, Cameron P. ; Montlucon, Daniel B. ; Peucker-Ehrenbrink, Bernhard ; Ponton, Camilo ; Schefuß, Enno ; Schwab, Melissa S. ; Voss, Britta M. ; Wacker, Lukas ; Wu, Ying ; Zhao, Meixun
    Terrestrial vegetation and soils hold three times more carbon than the atmosphere. Much debate concerns how anthropogenic activity will perturb these surface reservoirs, potentially exacerbating ongoing changes to the climate system. Uncertainties specifically persist in extrapolating point-source observations to ecosystem-scale budgets and fluxes, which require consideration of vertical and lateral processes on multiple temporal and spatial scales. To explore controls on organic carbon (OC) turnover at the river basin scale, we present radiocarbon (14C) ages on two groups of molecular tracers of plant-derived carbon—leaf-wax lipids and lignin phenols—from a globally distributed suite of rivers. We find significant negative relationships between the 14C age of these biomarkers and mean annual temperature and precipitation. Moreover, riverine biospheric-carbon ages scale proportionally with basin-wide soil carbon turnover times and soil 14C ages, implicating OC cycling within soils as a primary control on exported biomarker ages and revealing a broad distribution of soil OC reactivities. The ubiquitous occurrence of a long-lived soil OC pool suggests soil OC is globally vulnerable to perturbations by future temperature and precipitation increase. Scaling of riverine biospheric-carbon ages with soil OC turnover shows the former can constrain the sensitivity of carbon dynamics to environmental controls on broad spatial scales. Extracting this information from fluvially dominated sedimentary sequences may inform past variations in soil OC turnover in response to anthropogenic and/or climate perturbations. In turn, monitoring riverine OC composition may help detect future climate-change–induced perturbations of soil OC turnover and stocks.
  • Article
    Rapid radiocarbon (14C) analysis of coral and carbonate samples using a continuous-flow accelerator mass spectrometry (CFAMS) system
    (American Geophysical Union, 2011-11-05) McIntyre, Cameron P. ; Roberts, Mark L. ; Burton, Joshua R. ; McNichol, Ann P. ; Burke, Andrea ; Robinson, Laura F. ; von Reden, Karl F. ; Jenkins, William J.
    Radiocarbon analyses of carbonate materials provide critical information for understanding the last glacial cycle, recent climate history and paleoceanography. Methods that reduce the time and cost of radiocarbon (14C) analysis are highly desirable for large sample sets and reconnaissance type studies. We have developed a method for rapid radiocarbon analysis of carbonates using a novel continuous-flow accelerator mass spectrometry (CFAMS) system. We analyzed a suite of deep-sea coral samples and compared the results with those obtained using a conventional AMS system. Measurement uncertainty is <0.02 Fm or 160 Ryr for a modern sample and the mean background was 37,800 Ryr. Radiocarbon values were repeatable and in good agreement with those from the conventional AMS system. Sample handling and preparation is relatively simple and the method offered a significant increase in speed and cost effectiveness. We applied the method to coral samples from the Eastern Pacific Ocean to obtain an age distribution and identify samples for further analysis. This paper is intended to update the paleoceanographic community on the status of this new method and demonstrate its feasibility as a choice for rapid and affordable radiocarbon analysis.
  • Article
    Isotopic evidence for sources of dissolved carbon and the role of organic matter respiration in the Fraser River basin, Canada
    (Springer, 2022-07-10) Voss, Britta M. ; Eglinton, Timothy I. ; Peucker-Ehrenbrink, Bernhard ; Galy, Valier ; Lang, Susan Q. ; McIntyre, Cameron P. ; Spencer, Robert G. M. ; Bulygina, Ekaterina ; Wang, Zhaohui Aleck ; Guay, Katherine A.
    Sources of dissolved and particulate carbon to the Fraser River system vary significantly in space and time. Tributaries in the northern interior of the basin consistently deliver higher concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) to the main stem than other tributaries. Based on samples collected near the Fraser River mouth throughout 2013, the radiocarbon age of DOC exported from the Fraser River does not change significantly across seasons despite a spike in DOC concentration during the freshet, suggesting modulation of heterogeneous upstream chemical and isotopic signals during transit through the river basin. Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) concentrations are highest in the Rocky Mountain headwater region where carbonate weathering is evident, but also in tributaries with high DOC concentrations, suggesting that DOC respiration may be responsible for a significant portion of DIC in this basin. Using an isotope and major ion mass balance approach to constrain the contributions of carbonate and silicate weathering and DOC respiration, we estimate that up to 33 ± 11% of DIC is derived from DOC respiration in some parts of the Fraser River basin. Overall, these results indicate close coupling between the cycling of DOC and DIC, and that carbon is actively processed and transformed during transport through the river network.
  • Article
    Temporal and spatial variability of particle transport in the deep Arctic Canada Basin
    (John Wiley & Sons, 2015-04-11) Hwang, Jeomshik ; Kim, Minkyoung ; Manganini, Steven J. ; McIntyre, Cameron P. ; Haghipour, Negar ; Park, Jong Jin ; Krishfield, Richard A. ; Macdonald, Robie W. ; McLaughlin, Fiona A. ; Eglinton, Timothy I.
    To better understand the current carbon cycle and potentially detect its change in the rapidly changing Arctic Ocean, we examined sinking particles collected quasi-continuously over a period of 7 years (2004–2011) by bottom-tethered sediment trap moorings in the central Canada Basin. Total mass flux was very low (<100 mg m−2 d−1) at all sites and was temporally decoupled from the cycle of primary production in surface waters. Extremely low radiocarbon contents of particulate organic carbon and high aluminum contents in sinking particles reveal high contributions of resuspended sediment to total sinking particle flux in the deep Canada Basin. Station A (75°N, 150°W) in the southwest quadrant of the Canada Basin is most strongly influenced while Station C (77°N, 140°W) in the northeast quadrant is least influenced by lateral particle supply based on radiocarbon content and Al concentration. The results at Station A, where three sediment traps were deployed at different depths, imply that the most likely mode of lateral particle transport was as thick clouds of enhanced particle concentration extending well above the seafloor. At present, only 1%–2% of the low levels of new production in Canada Basin surface waters reaches the interior basin. Lateral POC supply therefore appears to be the major source of organic matter to the interior basin. However, ongoing changes to surface ocean boundary conditions may influence both lateral and vertical supply of particulate material to the deep Canada Basin.
  • Preprint
    Hydrologic controls on seasonal and inter-annual variability of Congo River particulate organic matter source and reservoir age
    ( 2017-06) Hemingway, Jordon D. ; Schefuß, Enno ; Spencer, Robert G. M. ; Dinga, Bienvenu J. ; Eglinton, Timothy I. ; McIntyre, Cameron P. ; Galy, Valier
    We present dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations, particulate organic matter (POM) composition (δ13C, δ15N, ∆14C, N/C), and particulate glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether (GDGT) distributions from a 34-month time-series near the mouth of the Congo River. An end-member mixing model using δ13C and N/C indicates that exported POM is consistently dominated by C3 rainforest soil sources, with increasing contribution from C3 vegetation and decreasing contribution from phytoplankton at high discharge. Large C4 inputs are never observed despite covering ≈ 13 % of the catchment. Low and variable ∆14C values during 2011 [annual mean = (-148 ± 82) ‰], when discharge from left-bank tributaries located in the southern hemisphere reached record lows, likely reflect a bias toward pre-aged POM derived from the Cuvette Congolaise swamp forest. In contrast, ∆14C values were stable near -50 ‰ between January and June 2013, when left-bank discharge was highest. We suggest that headwater POM is replaced and/or diluted by C3 vegetation and pre-aged soils during transit through the Cuvette Congolaise, whereas left-bank tributaries export significantly less pre-aged material. GDGT distributions provide further evidence for seasonal and inter-annual variability in soil provenance. The cyclization of branched tetraethers and the GDGT-0 to crenarchaeol ratio are positively correlated with discharge (r ≥ 0.70; p-value ≤ 4.3×10-5) due to the incorporation of swamp-forest soils when discharge from right-bank tributaries located in the northern hemisphere is high. Both metrics reach record lows during 2013, supporting our interpretation of increased left-bank contribution at this time. We conclude that hydrologic variability is a major control of POM provenance in the Congo River Basin and that tropical wetlands can be a significant POM source despite their small geographic coverage.