Brewer Peter G.

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Brewer
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Peter G.
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Now showing 1 - 8 of 8
  • Article
    Comment on “Modern-age buildup of CO2 and its effects on seawater acidity and salinity” by Hugo A. Loáiciga
    (American Geophysical Union, 2007-09-25) Caldeira, Ken ; Archer, David ; Barry, James P. ; Bellerby, Richard G. J. ; Brewer, Peter G. ; Cao, Long ; Dickson, Andrew G. ; Doney, Scott C. ; Elderfield, Henry ; Fabry, Victoria J. ; Feely, Richard A. ; Gattuso, Jean-Pierre ; Haugan, Peter M. ; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove ; Jain, Atul K. ; Kleypas, Joan A. ; Langdon, Chris ; Orr, James C. ; Ridgwell, Andy ; Sabine, Christopher L. ; Seibel, Brad A. ; Shirayama, Yoshihisa ; Turley, Carol ; Watson, Andrew J. ; Zeebe, Richard E.
  • Preprint
    Determination of gas bubble fractionation rates in the deep ocean by laser Raman spectroscopy
    ( 2004-10-29) White, Sheri N. ; Brewer, Peter G. ; Peltzer, Edward T.
    A new deep-sea laser Raman spectrometer (DORISS – Deep Ocean Raman In Situ Spectrometer) is used to observe the preferential dissolution of CO2 into seawater from a 50%-50% CO2-N2 gas mixture in a set of experiments that test a proposed method of CO2 sequestration in the deep ocean. In a first set of experiments performed at 300 m depth, an open-bottomed 1000 cm3 cube was used to contain the gas mixture; and in a second set of experiments a 2.5 cm3 funnel was used to hold a bubble of the gas mixture in front of the sampling optic. By observing the changing ratios of the CO2 and N2 Raman bands we were able to determine the gas flux and the mass transfer coefficient at 300 m depth and compare them to theoretical calculations for air-sea gas exchange. Although each experiment had a different configuration, comparable results were obtained. As expected, the ratio of CO2 to N2 drops off at an exponential rate as CO2 is preferentially dissolved in seawater. In fitting the data with theoretical gas flux calculations, the boundary layer thickness was determined to be ~42 μm for the gas cube, and ~165 μm for the gas funnel reflecting different boundary layer turbulence. The mass transfer coefficients for CO2 are kL = 2.82 x 10- 5 m/s for the gas cube experiment, and kL = 7.98 x 10- 6 m/s for the gas funnel experiment.
  • Article
    In situ Raman analyses of deep-sea hydrothermal and cold seep systems (Gorda Ridge and Hydrate Ridge)
    (American Geophysical Union, 2006-05-25) White, Sheri N. ; Dunk, R. M. ; Peltzer, Edward T. ; Freeman, J. J. ; Brewer, Peter G.
    The Deep Ocean Raman In Situ Spectrometer (DORISS) instrument was deployed at the Sea Cliff Hydrothermal Field and Hydrate Ridge in July 2004. The first in situ Raman spectra of hydrothermal minerals, fluids, and bacterial mats were obtained. These spectra were analyzed and compared to laboratory Raman measurements of standards and samples collected from the site. Spectra of vent fluid (∼294°C at the orifice) at ∼2700 m depth were collected with noncontact and immersion sampling optics. Compared to spectra of ambient (∼2°C) seawater, the vent fluid spectra show changes in the intensity and positions of the water O-H stretch bands due to the elevated temperature. The sulfate band observed in seawater spectra is reduced in vent fluid spectra as sulfate is removed from vent fluid in the subseafloor. Additional components of hydrothermal fluid are present in concentrations too low to be detected with the current Raman system. A precision underwater positioner (PUP) was used to focus the laser spot on opaque samples such as minerals and bacterial mats. Spectra were obtained of anhydrite from actively venting chimneys, and of barite deposits in hydrothermal crusts. Laboratory analysis of rock samples collected in the vent field also detected the presence of gypsum. Spectra of bacterial mats revealed the presence of elemental sulfur (S8) and the carotenoid beta-carotene. Challenges encountered include strong fluorescence from minerals and organics and insufficient sensitivity of the instrument. The next generation DORISS instrument addresses some of these challenges and holds great potential for use in deep-sea vent environments.
  • Preprint
    Gas hydrate measurements at Hydrate Ridge using Raman spectroscopy
    ( 2006-11-14) Hester, K. C. ; Dunk, R. M. ; White, Sheri N. ; Brewer, Peter G. ; Peltzer, Edward T. ; Sloan, E. D.
    Oceanic gas hydrates have been measured near the seafloor for the first time using a seagoing Raman spectrometer at Hydrate Ridge, Oregon, where extensive layers of hydrates have been found to occur near the seafloor. All of the hydrates analyzed were liberated from the upper meter of the sediment column near active gas venting sites in water depths of 770-780 m. Hydrate properties, such as structure and composition, were measured with significantly less disturbance to the sample than would be realized with core recovery. The natural hydrates measured were sI, with methane as the predominant guest component, and minor/trace amounts of hydrogen sulfide present in three of the twelve samples measured. Methane large-to-small cage occupancy ratios of the hydrates varied from 1.01 to 1.30, in good agreement with measurements of laboratory synthesized and recovered natural hydrates. Although the samples visually appeared to be solid, varying quantities of free methane gas were detected, indicating the presence of occluded gas a hydrate bubble fabric and/or partial hydrate dissociation in the under-saturated seawater.
  • Technical Report
    Report A, chemical oceanographic data from the Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman
    (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, 1978-05) Brewer, Peter G. ; Fleer, Alan P. ; Kadar, Susan ; Smith, Clarence L.
    During February and March of 1977 a major geochemical, biological and geophysical survey of the Persian Gulf and adjacent waters was carried out on R/V ATLANTIS II, Cruise 93, Legs 17 and 18. It is the purpose of this report to present the chemical oceanographic data obtained, together with a documentation of the analytical techniques and a simple discussion of the major features observed. Of the 54 hydrographic stations (ATLANTIS II, Stations 2357-2410) occupied during Leg 17, 45 may be said to be in the Persian Gulf proper, the remainder being in the Gulf of Oman and the northwestern Arabian Sea.
  • Article
    Thank you to our 2017 peer reviewers
    (John Wiley & Sons, 2018-09-19) Brewer, Peter G. ; Chambers, Don P. ; Hetland, Robert ; Karnauskas, Kristopher B. ; Lowe, Ryan ; Moran, S. Bradley ; Oey, Lie-Yauw ; Pinardi, Nadia ; Proshutinsky, Andrey
    Similar to the construction of physical ships and laboratory buildings, scientific knowledge is built incrementally and requires solid components of data, theory, and methodology at each phase of the “construction.” The peer‐review process provides the necessary “inspection” and the assurance that every step of the construction is solid, particularly in regard to the proper use of the scientific method. The peer‐review process helps improve the published work by providing constructive suggestions and by safeguarding against scientific work that could later be found to be built on shaky foundations. Because no single scientist has intimate knowledge of today's many aspects of the Ocean Sciences, we rely on each other's expertise to serve as unbiased “inspectors” of published articles. Your considerable time and effort, spent reviewing JGR‐Oceans manuscript(s) during 2017, are sincerely appreciated by our editorial board and by the Ocean Science community at large. We thank you for rising to this professional challenge and for your wisdom, commitment, skill, and service.
  • Preprint
    Development and deployment of a precision underwater positioning system for in situ laser Raman spectroscopy in the deep ocean
    ( 2005-10-25) White, Sheri N. ; Kirkwood, William ; Sherman, Alana ; Brown, Mark ; Henthorn, Richard ; Salamy, Karen ; Walz, Peter ; Peltzer, Edward T. ; Brewer, Peter G.
    The field of ocean geochemistry has recently been expanded to include in situ laser Raman spectroscopic measurements in the deep ocean. While this technique has proved to be successful for transparent targets, such as fluids and gases, difficulty exists in using deep submergence vehicle manipulators to position and control the very small laser spot with respect to opaque samples of interest, such as many rocks, minerals, bacterial mats, and seafloor gas hydrates. We have developed, tested, and successfully deployed by remotely operated vehicle (ROV) a precision underwater positioner (PUP) which provides the stability and precision movement required to perform spectroscopic measurements using the Deep Ocean In Situ Spectrometer (DORISS) instrument on opaque targets in the deep ocean for geochemical research. The positioner is also adaptable to other sensors, such as electrodes, which require precise control and positioning on the seafloor. PUP is capable of translating the DORISS optical head with a precision of 0.1 mm in three dimensions over a range of at least 15 cm, at depths up to 4000 m, and under the normal range of oceanic conditions (T, P, current velocity). The positioner is controlled, and spectra are obtained, in real time via Ethernet by scientists aboard the surface vessel. This capability has allowed us to acquire high quality Raman spectra of targets such as rocks, shells, and gas hydrates on the seafloor, including the ability to scan the laser spot across a rock surface in sub-millimeter increments to identify the constituent mineral grains. These developments have greatly enhanced the ability to obtain in situ Raman spectra on the seafloor from an enormous range of specimens.
  • Article
    Preparedness, planning, and advances in operational response
    (Oceanography Society, 2021-06-03) Westerholm, David G. ; Ainsworth, Cameron H. ; Barker, Christopher H. ; Brewer, Peter G. ; Farrington, John W. ; Justić, Dubravko ; Kourafalou, Vassiliki H. ; Murawski, Steven A. ; Shepherd, John G. ; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M.
    During the last 50 years, the numbers and sizes of oil spills have been significantly reduced through prevention. But spills still occur, and it is critical to prepare for these events through planning and exercises. Operational decisions are designed to expedite cleanup and minimize overall impacts, yet they often involve complex trade-offs between a multitude of competing interests. It is imperative to apply the best technology and science when events occur. However, while planning and response tactics have evolved over time, determining what may be most at risk is often confounded by sparse background data, modeling limitations, scalability, or research gaps. Since 2010, the Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative (GoMRI) and other oil spill research helped address many issues and propelled advances in spill modeling. As a result, there is an increased understanding of environmental impacts, how to assess damages, and the unintended consequences of spill countermeasures. The unprecedented amount of information resulting from this research has strengthened the bridge between the academic community and operational responders and brought improvements in preparedness, planning, and operations. This paper focuses primarily on GoMRI research and advances that relate to operational activities, as well as limitations and opportunities for gap-filling future research.