Brown Andrew D.

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Andrew D.

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    Use of the swim bladder and lateral line in near-field sound source localization by fishes
    ( 2014-03) Coffin, Allison B. ; Zeddies, David G. ; Fay, Richard R. ; Brown, Andrew D. ; Alderks, Peter W. ; Bhandiwad, Ashwin A. ; Mohr, Robert A. ; Gray, Michael D. ; Rogers, Peter H. ; Sisneros, Joseph A.
    We investigated the roles of the swim bladder and the lateral line system in sound localization behavior by the plainfin midshipman fish (Porichthys notatus). Reproductive female midshipman underwent either surgical deflation of the swim bladder or cryoablation of the lateral line and were then tested in a monopolar sound source localization task. Fish with nominally “deflated” swim bladders performed similar to sham-deflated controls; however, post-experiment evaluation of swim bladder deflation revealed that a majority of “deflated” fish (88%, 7 of the 8 fish) that exhibited positive phonotaxis had partially inflated swim bladders. In total, 95% (21/22) of fish that localized the source had at least partially inflated swim- bladders, indicating that pressure reception is likely required for sound source localization. In lateral line experiments, no difference was observed in the proportion of females exhibiting positive phonotaxis with ablated- (37%) versus sham-ablated (47%) lateral line systems. These data suggest that the lateral line system is likely not required for sound source localization, although this system may be important for fine- tuning the approach to the sound source. We found that midshipman can solve the 180° ambiguity of source direction in the shallow water of our test tank, which is similar to their nesting environment. We also found that the potential directional cues (phase relationship between pressure and particle motion) in shallow water differs from a theoretical free-field. Therefore, the general question of how fish use acoustic pressure cues to solve the 180° ambiguity of source direction from the particle motion vector remains unresolved.