Smyth Tim J.

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Tim J.

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  • Article
    Challenges of modeling depth-integrated marine primary productivity over multiple decades : a case study at BATS and HOT
    (American Geophysical Union, 2010-09-15) Saba, Vincent S. ; Friedrichs, Marjorie A. M. ; Carr, Mary-Elena ; Antoine, David ; Armstrong, Robert A. ; Asanuma, Ichio ; Aumont, Olivier ; Bates, Nicholas R. ; Behrenfeld, Michael J. ; Bennington, Val ; Bopp, Laurent ; Bruggeman, Jorn ; Buitenhuis, Erik T. ; Church, Matthew J. ; Ciotti, Aurea M. ; Doney, Scott C. ; Dowell, Mark ; Dunne, John P. ; Dutkiewicz, Stephanie ; Gregg, Watson ; Hoepffner, Nicolas ; Hyde, Kimberly J. W. ; Ishizaka, Joji ; Kameda, Takahiko ; Karl, David M. ; Lima, Ivan D. ; Lomas, Michael W. ; Marra, John F. ; McKinley, Galen A. ; Melin, Frederic ; Moore, J. Keith ; Morel, Andre ; O'Reilly, John ; Salihoglu, Baris ; Scardi, Michele ; Smyth, Tim J. ; Tang, Shilin ; Tjiputra, Jerry ; Uitz, Julia ; Vichi, Marcello ; Waters, Kirk ; Westberry, Toby K. ; Yool, Andrew
    The performance of 36 models (22 ocean color models and 14 biogeochemical ocean circulation models (BOGCMs)) that estimate depth-integrated marine net primary productivity (NPP) was assessed by comparing their output to in situ 14C data at the Bermuda Atlantic Time series Study (BATS) and the Hawaii Ocean Time series (HOT) over nearly two decades. Specifically, skill was assessed based on the models' ability to estimate the observed mean, variability, and trends of NPP. At both sites, more than 90% of the models underestimated mean NPP, with the average bias of the BOGCMs being nearly twice that of the ocean color models. However, the difference in overall skill between the best BOGCM and the best ocean color model at each site was not significant. Between 1989 and 2007, in situ NPP at BATS and HOT increased by an average of nearly 2% per year and was positively correlated to the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation index. The majority of ocean color models produced in situ NPP trends that were closer to the observed trends when chlorophyll-a was derived from high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), rather than fluorometric or SeaWiFS data. However, this was a function of time such that average trend magnitude was more accurately estimated over longer time periods. Among BOGCMs, only two individual models successfully produced an increasing NPP trend (one model at each site). We caution against the use of models to assess multiannual changes in NPP over short time periods. Ocean color model estimates of NPP trends could improve if more high quality HPLC chlorophyll-a time series were available.
  • Preprint
    The seasonal structure of microbial communities in the Western English Channel
    ( 2009-06-05) Gilbert, Jack A. ; Field, Dawn ; Swift, Paul ; Newbold, Lindsay K. ; Oliver, Anna E. ; Smyth, Tim J. ; Somerfield, Paul J. ; Huse, Susan M. ; Joint, Ian
    Very few marine microbial communities are well characterized even with the weight of research effort presently devoted to it. Only a small proportion of this effort has been aimed at investigating temporal community structure. Here we present the first report of the application of high-throughput pyrosequencing to investigate intra-annual bacterial community structure. Microbial diversity was determined for 12 time points at the surface of the L4 sampling site in the Western English Channel. This was performed over 11 months during 2007. A total of 182,560 sequences from the V6 hyper-variable region of the small-subunit ribosomal RNA gene (16S rRNA) were obtained; there were between 11,327 and 17,339 reads per sample. Approximately 7000 genera were identified, with one in every 25 reads being attributed to a new genus; yet this level of sampling far from exhausted the total diversity present at any one time point. The total data set contained 17,673 unique sequences. Only 93 (0.5%) were found at all time-points, yet these few lineages comprised 50% of the total reads sequenced. The most abundant phylum was Proteobacteria (50% of all sequenced reads), while the SAR11 clade comprised 21% of the ubiquitous reads and ~12 % of the total sequenced reads. In contrast, 78% of all OTUs were only found at one time-point and 67% were only found once, evidence of a large and transient rare assemblage. This time-series shows evidence of seasonally structured community diversity. There is also evidence for seasonal succession, primarily reflecting changes among dominant taxa. These changes in structure were significantly correlated to a combination of temperature, phosphate and silicate concentrations.
  • Article
    Maritime Aerosol Network as a component of Aerosol Robotic Network
    (American Geophysical Union, 2009-03-21) Smirnov, A. ; Holben, B. N. ; Slutsker, I. ; Giles, D. M. ; McClain, Charles R. ; Eck, T. F. ; Sakerin, S. M. ; Macke, A. ; Croot, Peter L. ; Zibordi, G. ; Quinn, P. K. ; Sciare, J. ; Kinne, S. ; Harvey, Mike J. ; Smyth, Tim J. ; Piketh, S. ; Zielinski, T. ; Proshutinsky, Andrey ; Goes, Joachim I. ; Nelson, Norman B. ; Larouche, P. ; Radionov, V. F. ; Goloub, P. ; Moorthy, K. Krishna ; Matarrese, R. ; Robertson, E. J. ; Jourdin, F.
    The paper presents the current status of the Maritime Aerosol Network (MAN), which has been developed as a component of the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET). MAN deploys Microtops handheld Sun photometers and utilizes the calibration procedure and data processing (Version 2) traceable to AERONET. A web site dedicated to the MAN activity is described. A brief historical perspective is given to aerosol optical depth (AOD) measurements over the oceans. A short summary of the existing data, collected on board ships of opportunity during the NASA Sensor Intercomparison and Merger for Biological and Interdisciplinary Oceanic Studies (SIMBIOS) Project is presented. Globally averaged oceanic aerosol optical depth (derived from island-based AERONET measurements) at 500 nm is ∼0.11 and Angstrom parameter (computed within spectral range 440–870 nm) is calculated to be ∼0.6. First results from the cruises contributing to the Maritime Aerosol Network are shown. MAN ship-based aerosol optical depth compares well to simultaneous island and near-coastal AERONET site AOD.
  • Preprint
    Assessing the uncertainties of model estimates of primary productivity in the tropical Pacific Ocean
    ( 2008-03) Friedrichs, Marjorie A. M. ; Carr, Mary-Elena ; Barber, Richard T. ; Scardi, Michele ; Antoine, David ; Armstrong, Robert A. ; Asanuma, Ichio ; Behrenfeld, Michael J. ; Buitenhuis, Erik T. ; Chai, Fei ; Christian, James R. ; Ciotti, Aurea M. ; Doney, Scott C. ; Dowell, Mark ; Dunne, John P. ; Gentili, Bernard ; Gregg, Watson ; Hoepffner, Nicolas ; Ishizaka, Joji ; Kameda, Takahiko ; Lima, Ivan D. ; Marra, John F. ; Melin, Frederic ; Moore, J. Keith ; Morel, Andre ; O'Malley, Robert T. ; O'Reilly, Jay ; Saba, Vincent S. ; Schmeltz, Marjorie ; Smyth, Tim J. ; Tjiputra, Jerry ; Waters, Kirk ; Westberry, Toby K. ; Winguth, Arne
    Depth-integrated primary productivity (PP) estimates obtained from satellite ocean color based models (SatPPMs) and those generated from biogeochemical ocean general circulation models (BOGCMs) represent a key resource for biogeochemical and ecological studies at global as well as regional scales. Calibration and validation of these PP models are not straightforward, however, and comparative studies show large differences between model estimates. The goal of this paper is to compare PP estimates obtained from 30 different models (21 SatPPMs and 9 BOGCMs) to a tropical Pacific PP database consisting of ~1000 14C measurements spanning more than a decade (1983- 1996). Primary findings include: skill varied significantly between models, but performance was not a function of model complexity or type (i.e. SatPPM vs. BOGCM); nearly all models underestimated the observed variance of PP, specifically yielding too few low PP (< 0.2 gC m-2d-2) values; more than half of the total root-mean-squared model-data differences associated with the satellite-based PP models might be accounted for by uncertainties in the input variables and/or the PP data; and the tropical Pacific database captures a broad scale shift from low biomass-normalized productivity in the 1980s to higher biomass-normalized productivity in the 1990s, which was not successfully captured by any of the models. This latter result suggests that interdecadal and global changes will be a significant challenge for both SatPPMs and BOGCMs. Finally, average root-mean-squared differences between in situ PP data on the equator at 140°W and PP estimates from the satellite-based productivity models were 58% lower than analogous values computed in a previous PP model comparison six years ago. The success of these types of comparison exercises is illustrated by the continual modification and improvement of the participating models and the resulting increase in model skill.