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ArticleToxin profiles of five geographical isolates of Dinophysis spp. from North and South America(Elsevier B.V., 2010-12-10) Fux, Elie ; Smith, Juliette L. ; Tong, Mengmeng ; Guzman, Leonardo ; Anderson, Donald M.Marine dinoflagellates of the genus Dinophysis can produce toxins of the okadaic acid (OA) and pectenotoxin (PTX) groups. These lipophilic toxins accumulate in filter-feeding shellfish and cause an illness in consumers called diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP). In 2008, a bloom of Dinophysis led to the closure of shellfish harvesting areas along the Texas coast, one of the first DSP-related closures in the U.S. This event resulted in a broad study of toxin production in isolates of Dinophysis spp. from U.S. waters. In the present study, we compared toxin profiles in geographical isolates of Dinophysis collected in the U.S. (Eel Pond, Woods Hole MA; Martha’s Vineyard, MA; and Port Aransas Bay, Texas), and in those from Canada (Blacks Harbour, Bay of Fundy) and Chile (Reloncavi Estuary), when cultured in the laboratory under the same conditions. For each isolate, the mitochondrial cox1 gene was sequenced to assist in species identification. Strains from the northeastern U.S. and Canada were all assigned to Dinophysis acuminata, while those from Chile and Texas were most likely within the D. acuminata complex whereas precise species designation could not be made with this marker. Toxins were detected in all Dinophysis isolates and each isolate had a different profile. Toxin profiles of isolates from Eel Pond, Martha’s Vineyard, and Bay of Fundy were most similar, in that they all contained OA, DTX1, and PTX2. The Eel Pond isolate also contained OA-D8 and DTX1-D7, and low levels (unconfirmed structurally) of DTX1-D8 and DTX1-D9. D. acuminata from Martha’s Vineyard produced DTX1-D7, along with OA, DTX1, and PTX2, as identified in both the cells and the culture medium. D. acuminata from the Bay of Fundy produced DTX1 and PTX2, as found in both cells and culture medium, while only trace amounts of OA were detected in the medium. The Dinophysis strain from Texas only produced OA, and the one from Chile only PTX2, as confirmed in both cells and culture medium.