Moore C. Mark

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C. Mark

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  • Preprint
    Temporal progression of photosynthetic-strategy in phytoplankton in the Ross Sea, Antarctica
    ( 2015-12) Ryan-Keogh, Thomas J. ; DeLizo, Liza M. ; Smith, Walker O. ; Sedwick, Peter N. ; McGillicuddy, Dennis J. ; Moore, C. Mark ; Bibby, Thomas S.
    The bioavailability of iron influences the distribution, biomass and productivity of phytoplankton in the Ross Sea, one of the most productive regions in the Southern Ocean. We mapped the spatial and temporal extent and severity of iron-limitation of the native phytoplankton assemblage using long- (>24 h) and short-term (24 h) iron- addition experiments along with physiological and molecular characterisations during a cruise to the Ross Sea in December-February 2012. Phytoplankton increased their photosynthetic efficiency in response to iron addition, suggesting proximal iron limitation throughout most of the Ross Sea during summer. Molecular and physiological data further indicate that as nitrate is removed from the surface ocean the phytoplankton community transitions to one displaying an iron-efficient photosynthetic strategy characterised by an increase in the size of photosystem II (PSII) photochemical cross section (σPSII) and a decrease in the chlorophyll-normalised PSII abundance. These results suggest that phytoplankton with the ability to reduce their photosynthetic iron requirements are selected as the growing season progresses, which may drive the well-documented progression from Phaeocystis antarctica- assemblages to diatom-dominated phytoplankton. Such a shift in the assemblage-level photosynthetic strategy potentially mediates further drawdown of nitrate following the development of iron deficient conditions in the Ross Sea.
  • Preprint
    Dissolved iron in the vicinity of the Crozet Islands, Southern Ocean
    ( 2007-04-26) Planquette, Helene ; Statham, Peter J. ; Fones, Gary R. ; Charette, Matthew A. ; Moore, C. Mark ; Salter, Ian ; Nedelec, Florence H. ; Taylor, Sarah L. ; French, M. ; Baker, Alexander R. ; Mahowald, Natalie M. ; Jickells, T. D.
    The annual phytoplankton bloom occurring north of the Crozet Plateau provides a rare opportunity to examine the hypothesis that natural iron fertilisation can alleviate HNLC conditions normally associated with the Southern Ocean. Therefore, during CROZEX, a large multidisciplinary study performed between November 2004 and January 2005, measurements of total dissolved iron (DFe, ≤ 0.2 μm) were made on seawater from around the islands and atmospheric iron deposition estimated from rain and aerosol samples. DFe concentrations were determined by flow injection analysis with N,N-dimethyl- pphenylenediamine dihydrochloride (DPD) catalytic spectrophotometric detection. DFe concentrations varied between 0.086 nM and 2.48 nM, with low values in surface waters. Enrichment of dissolved iron (>1 nM) at close proximity to the islands suggests that the plateau and the associated sediments are a source of iron. Waters further north also appear to be affected by this input of coastal and shelf origin, although dissolved iron concentrations decrease as a function of distance to the north of the plateau with a gradient of ~0.07 at the time of sampling. Using lateral and vertical diffusion coefficients derived from Ra isotope profiles and also estimates of atmospheric inputs, it was then possible to estimate a DFe concentration of ~0.55 nM to the north of the islands prior to the bloom event, which is sufficient to initiate the bloom, the lateral island source being the largest component. A similar situation is observed for other Sub-Antarctic Islands such as Kerguelen, South Georgia, that supply dissolved iron to their surrounding waters, thus, enhancing chlorophyll concentrations.
  • Article
    Lipidomics of Thalassiosira pseudonana under phosphorus stress reveal underlying phospholipid substitution dynamics and novel diglycosylceramide substitutes
    (American Society for Microbiology, 2018-01-05) Hunter, Jonathan E. ; Brandsma, Joost ; Dymond, Marcus K. ; Koster, Grielof ; Moore, C. Mark ; Postle, Anthony D. ; Mills, Rachel A. ; Attard, George S.
    Phytoplankton replace phosphorus-containing lipids (P-lipids) with non-P analogues, boosting growth in P-limited oceans. In the model diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana, the substitution dynamics of lipid headgroups are well described, but those of the individual lipids, differing in fatty acid composition, are unknown. Moreover, the behavior of lipids outside the common headgroup classes and the relationship between lipid substitution and cellular particulate organic P (POP) have yet to be reported. We investigated these through the mass spectrometric lipidomics of P-replete (P+) and P-depleted (P−) T. pseudonana cultures. Nonlipidic POP was depleted rapidly by the initiation of P stress, followed by the cessation of P-lipid biosynthesis and per-cell reductions in the P-lipid levels of successive generations. Minor P-lipid degradative breakdown was observed, releasing P for other processes, but most P-lipids remained intact. This may confer an advantage on efficient heterotrophic lipid consumers in P-limited oceans. Glycerophosphatidylcholine (PC), the predominant P-lipid, was similar in composition to its betaine substitute lipid. During substitution, PC was less abundant per cell and was more highly unsaturated in composition. This may reflect underlying biosynthetic processes or the regulation of membrane biophysical properties subject to lipid substitution. Finally, levels of several diglycosylceramide lipids increased as much as 10-fold under P stress. These represent novel substitute lipids and potential biomarkers for the study of P limitation in situ, contributing to growing evidence highlighting the importance of sphingolipids in phycology. These findings contribute much to our understanding of P-lipid substitution, a powerful and widespread adaptation to P limitation in the oligotrophic ocean.