Koepke Juergen

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  • Preprint
    Sulfide enrichment at an oceanic crust-mantle transition zone : Kane Megamullion (23°N, MAR)
    ( 2018-03) Ciazela, Jakub ; Koepke, Juergen ; Dick, Henry J. B. ; Botcharnikov, Roman ; Muszynski, Andrzej ; Lazarov, Marina ; Schuth, Stephan ; Pieterek, Bartosz ; Kuhn, Thomas
    The Kane Megamullion oceanic core complex located along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (23°30′N, 45°20′W) exposes lower crust and upper mantle directly on the ocean floor. We studied chalcophile elements and sulfides in the ultramafic and mafic rocks of the crust-mantle transition and the mantle underneath. We determined mineralogical and elemental composition and the Cu isotope composition of the respective sulfides along with the mineralogical and elemental composition of the respective serpentines. The rocks of the crust-mantle transition zone (i.e., plagioclase harzburgite, peridotite-gabbro contacts, and dunite) overlaid by troctolites are by one order of magnitude enriched in several chalcophile elements with respect to the spinel harzburgites of the mantle beneath. Whereas the range of Cu concentrations in spinel harzburgites is 7–69 ppm, the Cu concentrations are highly elevated in plagioclase harzburgites with a range of 90–209 ppm. The zones of the peridotite-gabbro contacts are even more enriched, exhibiting up to 305 ppm Cu and highly elevated concentrations of As, Zn, Ga, Sb and Tl. High Cu concentrations show pronounced correlation with bulk S concentrations at the crust-mantle transition zone implying an enrichment process in this horizon of the oceanic lithosphere. We interpret this enrichment as related to melt-mantle reaction, which is extensive in crust-mantle transition zones. In spite of the ubiquitous serpentinization of primary rocks, we found magmatic chalcopyrites [CuFeS2] as inclusions in plagioclase as well as associated with pentlandite [(Fe,Ni)9S8] and pyrrhotite [Fe1−xS] in polysulfide grains. These chalcopyrites show a primary magmatic δ65Cu signature ranging from −0.04 to +0.29 ‰. Other chalcopyrites have been dissolved during serpentinization. Due to the low temperature (<300 °C) of circulating fluids chalcophile metals from primary sulfides have not been mobilized and transported away but have been trapped in smaller secondary sulfides and hydroxides. Combined with the Cu deposits documented in the crust-mantle transition zones of various ophiolite complexes, our results indicate that the metal enrichment, increased sulfide modes, and potentially formation of small sulfide deposits could be expected globally along the petrological Moho.
  • Article
    Sulfide enrichment along igneous layer boundaries in the lower oceanic crust: IODP Hole U1473A, Atlantis Bank, Southwest Indian Ridge
    (Elsevier, 2022-02-01) Pieterek, Bartosz ; Ciazela, Jakub ; Boulanger, Marine ; Lazarov, Marina ; Wegorzewski, Anna V. ; Pańczyk, Magdalena ; Strauss, Harald ; Dick, Henry J. B. ; Muszynski, Andrzej ; Koepke, Juergen ; Kuhn, Thomas ; Czupy, Zbigniew ; France, Lydéric
    Reactive porous or focused melt flows are common in crystal mushes of mid-ocean ridge magma reservoirs. Although they exert significant control on mid-ocean ridge magmatic differentiation, their role in metal transport between the mantle and the ocean floor remains poorly constrained. Here we aim to improve such knowledge for oceanic crust formed at slow-spreading centers (approximately half of present-day oceanic crust), by focusing on specific igneous features where sulfides are concentrated. International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 360 drilled Hole U1473A 789 m into the lower crust of the Atlantis Bank oceanic core complex, located at the Southwest Indian Ridge. Coarse-grained (5–30 mm) olivine gabbro prevailed throughout the hole, ranging locally from fine- (<1 mm), to very coarse-grained (>30 mm). We studied three distinct intervals of igneous grain size layering at 109.5–110.8, 158.0–158.3, and 593.0–594.4 meters below seafloor to understand the distribution of sulfides. We found that the layer boundaries between the fine- and coarse-grained gabbro were enriched in sulfides and chalcophile elements. On average, sulfide grains throughout the layering were composed of pyrrhotite (81 vol.%; Fe1-xS), chalcopyrite (16 vol.%; CuFeS2), and pentlandite (3 vol.%; [Ni,Fe,Co]9S8), which reflect paragenesis of magmatic origin. The sulfides were most commonly associated with Fe-Ti oxides (titanomagnetites and ilmenites), amphiboles, and apatites located at the interstitial positions between clinopyroxene, plagioclase, and olivine. Pentlandite exsolution textures in pyrrhotite indicate that the sulfides formed from high-temperature sulfide liquid separated from mafic magma that exsolved upon cooling. The relatively homogenous phase proportion within sulfides along with their chemical and isotopic compositions throughout the studied intervals further support the magmatic origin of sulfide enrichment at the layer boundaries. The studied magmatic layers were likely formed as a result of intrusion of more primitive magma (fine-grained gabbro) into the former crystal mush (coarse-grained gabbro). Sulfides from the coarse-grained gabbros are Ir-Platinum Group Element-rich (PGE; i.e., Ir, Os, Ru) but those from the fine-grained gabbros are Pd-PGE-rich (i.e., Pd, Pt, Rh). Notably, the sulfides from the layer boundaries are also enriched in Pd-PGEs, and therefore elevated sulfide contents at the boundaries were likely related to the new intruding melt. Because S concentration at sulfide saturation level is dependent on the Fe content of the melt, sulfide crystallization may have been caused by FeO loss, both via crystallization of late-precipitating oxides at the boundaries, and by exchange of Fe and Mg between melt and Fe-bearing silicates (olivine and clinopyroxene). The increased precipitation of sulfide grains at the layer boundaries might be widespread in the lower oceanic crust, as also observed in the Semail ophiolite and along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Therefore, this process might affect the metal budget of the global lower oceanic crust. We estimate that up to ∼20% of the Cu, ∼8% of the S, and ∼84% of the Pb of the oceanic crust inventory is accumulated at the layer boundaries only from the interaction between crystal mush and new magma.
  • Article
    Dynamic accretion beneath a slow-spreading ridge segment: IODP hole 1473A and the Atlantis Bank oceanic core complex
    (American Geophysical Union, 2019-11-07) Dick, Henry J. B. ; MacLeod, Christopher J. ; Blum, Peter ; Abe, Natsue ; Blackman, Donna K. ; Bowles, Julie A. ; Cheadle, Michael J. ; Cho, K. ; Ciazela, Jakub ; Deans, Jeremy ; Edgcomb, Virginia P. ; Ferrando, Carlotta ; France, Lydéric ; Ghosh, Biswajit ; Ildefonse, Benoit ; John, Barbara E. ; Kendrick, Mark A. ; Koepke, Juergen ; Leong, James ; Liu, Chuanzhou ; Ma, Qiang ; Morishita, Tomoaki ; Morris, Antony ; Natland, James H. ; Nozaka, Toshio ; Pluemper, Oliver ; Sanfilippo, Alessio ; Sylvan, Jason B. ; Tivey, Maurice A. ; Tribuzio, Riccardo ; Viegas, G.
    809 deep IODP Hole U1473A at Atlantis Bank, SWIR, is 2.2 km from 1,508‐m Hole 735B and 1.4 from 158‐m Hole 1105A. With mapping, it provides the first 3‐D view of the upper levels of a 660‐km2 lower crustal batholith. It is laterally and vertically zoned, representing a complex interplay of cyclic intrusion, and ongoing deformation, with kilometer‐scale upward and lateral migration of interstial melt. Transform wall dives over the gabbro‐peridotite contact found only evolved gabbro intruded directly into the mantle near the transform. There was no high‐level melt lens, rather the gabbros crystallized at depth, and then emplaced into the zone of diking by diapiric rise of a crystal mush followed by crystal‐plastic deformation and faulting. The residues to mass balance the crust to a parent melt composition lie at depth below the center of the massif—likely near the crust‐mantle boundary. Thus, basalts erupted to the seafloor from >1,550 mbsf. By contrast, the Mid‐Atlantic Ridge lower crust drilled at 23°N and at Atlantis Massif experienced little high‐temperature deformation and limited late‐stage melt transport. They contain primitive cumulates and represent direct intrusion, storage, and crystallization of parental MORB in thinner crust below the dike‐gabbro transition. The strong asymmetric spreading of the SWIR to the south was due to fault capture, with the northern rift valley wall faults cutoff by a detachment fault that extended across most of the zone of intrusion. This caused rapid migration of the plate boundary to the north, while the large majority of the lower crust to spread south unroofing Atlantis Bank and uplifting it into the rift mountains.
  • Preprint
    Thin crust and exposed mantle control sulfide differentiation in slow-spreading ridge magmas
    ( 2017-07) Ciazela, Jakub ; Dick, Henry J. B. ; Koepke, Juergen ; Pieterek, Bartosz ; Muszynski, Andrzej ; Botcharnikov, Roman ; Kuhn, Thomas
    Gabbroic veins enclosed in mantle peridotite from ocean core complexes next to oceanic transform faults demonstrate sub-crustal crystallization of silicate minerals from a MORB-like melt. Cooler lithosphere there may also affect sulfide crystallization and the metal budget of the lower and upper crust but the related sulfide behavior is poorly understood. Here, we use chalcophile elements to trace sulfide crystallization in a suite of MORB's erupted at the Kane Megamullion south of the Kane Fracture Zone along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Cool lithosphere there is inferred from a low magma supply, and lithostratigraphic evidence for thin crust with abundant mantle rock exposed to the seafloor (Dick et al., 2008). We show that the concentrations of Cu, Zn, As, Ga, Pb, Sb and Tl in the Kane Megamullion MORB's rise linearly with melt differentiation expressed by decreasing MgO and Ni content. The low-pressure fractional crystallization within the crust thus occurs at sulfur-undersaturated conditions. Sulfur-undersaturated MORB's are unusual. At the Kane Megamullion, however, the thin crust allows melt to more extensively interact with the shallow and serpentinized mantle. We argue that sulfur and chalcophile elements have been lost from the melt due to sulfide crystallization during melt-rock reaction in the shallow mantle.