Gaill Francoise

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Colonisation of newly-opened habitat by a pioneer species, Alvinella pompejana (Polychaeta: Alvinellidae), at East Pacific Rise vent sites

2005-11-04 , Pradillon, Florence , Zbinden, Magali , Mullineaux, Lauren S. , Gaill, Francoise

Animal communities on the walls of deep-sea hydrothermal chimneys are distributed in mosaics of patches that may evolve as local environmental conditions change and biological interactions develop. Alvinella pompejana Desbruyères et Laubier, 1980 is one of the first metazoan colonisers of new surfaces created by mineral precipitation, and therefore may be particularly important in community establishment in active parts of smokers. Here our goal was to investigate the colonisation mechanisms of A. pompejana in new patches and determine whether these mechanisms may influence population structure and reproductive patterns in this species. We deployed a series of TRAC (Titanium Ring for Alvinellid Colonisation) devices at East Pacific Rise (EPR) vent sites to compare the size and stage (i.e. reproductive maturity) distribution of A. pompejana individuals between recently colonised patches (TRACs) and established patches (grabbed by submersible). TRACs deployed for short time periods (11 d to 1 mo) were generally colonised by smaller individuals than those found in background populations or in TRACs deployed for longer time periods (>1 mo). Colonists into new patches were a mix of juveniles and individuals that were sexually mature but non-reproductive (i.e. not producing gametes), whereas background population and older patches harboured a mixture of individuals at different stages including reproductive females. Although some individuals may have recruited on TRACs as larvae, the major colonisation process involved was probably immigration of post-larval stages. In long-term TRAC, reproductive females were not reproductively synchronised. In this dynamic environment, reproduction would be triggered by the disturbance/migration processes, explaining the heterogeneity observed in reproductive patterns.

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Designing coastal adaptation strategies to tackle sea level rise

2021-11-03 , Bongarts Lebbe, Théophile , Rey-Valette, Hélène , Chaumillon, Éric , Camus, Guigone , Almar, Rafael , Cazenave, Anny , Claudet, Joachim , Rocle, Nicolas , Meur-Férec, Catherine , Viard, Frédérique , Mercier, Denis , Dupuy, Christine , Ménard, Frédéric , Rossel, Bernardo Aliaga , Mullineaux, Lauren S. , Sicre, Marie-Alexandrine , Zivian, Anna , Gaill, Francoise , Euzen, Agathe

Faced with sea level rise and the intensification of extreme events, human populations living on the coasts are developing responses to address local situations. A synthesis of the literature on responses to coastal adaptation allows us to highlight different adaptation strategies. Here, we analyze these strategies according to the complexity of their implementation, both institutionally and technically. First, we distinguish two opposing paradigms – fighting against rising sea levels or adapting to new climatic conditions; and second, we observe the level of integrated management of the strategies. This typology allows a distinction between four archetypes with the most commonly associated governance modalities for each. We then underline the need for hybrid approaches and adaptation trajectories over time to take into account local socio-cultural, geographical, and climatic conditions as well as to integrate stakeholders in the design and implementation of responses. We show that dynamic and participatory policies can foster collective learning processes and enable the evolution of social values and behaviors. Finally, adaptation policies rely on knowledge and participatory engagement, multi-scalar governance, policy monitoring, and territorial solidarity. These conditions are especially relevant for densely populated areas that will be confronted with sea level rise, thus for coastal cities in particular.