Sarradin Pierre-Marie

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  • Preprint
    Hydrothermal activity along the slow-spreading Lucky Strike ridge segment (Mid-Atlantic Ridge) : distribution, heatflux, and geological controls
    ( 2015-09) Escartin, Javier E. ; Barreyre, Thibaut ; Cannat, Mathilde ; Garcia, Rafael ; Gracias, Nuno ; Deschamps, Anne ; Salocchi, Aura ; Sarradin, Pierre-Marie ; Ballu, Valerie
    We have reviewed available visual information from the seafloor, and recently acquired microbathymetry for several traverses across the Lucky Strike segment, to evaluate the distribution of hydrothermal activity. We have identified a new on-axis site with diffuse flow, Ewan, and anactive vent structure ~1.2 km from the axis, Capelinhos. These sites are minor relative to the Main field, and our total heatflux estimate for all active sites (200-1200 MW) is only slightly higher than previously published estimates. We also identify fossil sites W of the main Lucky Strike field. A circular feature ~200 m in diameter located on the flanks of a rifted off-axis central volcano, is likely a large and inactive hydrothermal edifice, named Grunnus. We find no indicator of focused hydrothermal activity elsewhere along the segment, suggesting that the enhanced melt supply and the associated melt lenses, required to form central volcanoes, also sustain hydrothermal circulation to form and maintain large and long-lived hydrothermal fields. Hydrothermal discharge to the seafloor occurs along fault traces, suggesting focusing of hydrothermal circulation in the shallow crust along permeable fault zones.
  • Preprint
    A dual sensor device to estimate fluid flow velocity at diffuse hydrothermal vents
    ( 2009-06-12) Sarrazin, Jozée ; Rodier, P. ; Tivey, Margaret K. ; Singh, Hanumant ; Schultz, A. ; Sarradin, Pierre-Marie
    Numerous attempts have been made over the last thirty years to estimate fluid flow rates at hydrothermal vents, either at the exit of black smoker chimneys or within diffuse flow areas. In this study, we combine two methods to accurately estimate fluid flow velocities at diffuse flow areas. While the first method uses a hot film anemometer that performs high frequency measurements, the second allows a relatively rapid assessment of fluid flow velocity through video imagery and provides in situ data to calibrate the sensor. Measurements of flow velocities on hydrothermal diffuse flow areas were obtained on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR). They range from 1.1 to 4.9 mm/sec., at the substratum level, in low temperature (4.5 to 16.4°C) diffuse flow areas from the Tour Eiffel sulfide edifice. A strong correlation was observed between fluid flow velocities and temperature, supporting the possible use of temperature as a proxy to estimate flow rates in diffuse flow areas where such a simple linear flow/temperature relation is shown to dominate.
  • Article
    Integrating Multidisciplinary Observations in Vent Environments (IMOVE): decadal progress in deep-sea observatories at hydrothermal vents
    (Frontiers Media, 2022-05-13) Matabos, Marjolaine ; Barreyre, Thibaut ; Juniper, S. Kim ; Cannat, Mathilde ; Kelley, Deborah S. ; Alfaro-Lucas, Joan M. ; Chavagnac, Valerie ; Colaço, Ana ; Escartin, Javier E. ; Escobar Briones, Elva ; Fornari, Daniel J. ; Hasenclever, Jörg ; Huber, Julie A. ; Laës-Huon, Agathe ; Lantéri, Nadine ; Levin, Lisa A. ; Mihaly, Steven F. ; Mittelstaedt, Eric ; Pradillon, Florence ; Sarradin, Pierre-Marie ; Sarradin, Pierre-Marie ; Sarrazin, Jozée ; Tomasi, Beatrice ; Venkatesan, Ramasamy ; Vic, Clément
    The unique ecosystems and biodiversity associated with mid-ocean ridge (MOR) hydrothermal vent systems contrast sharply with surrounding deep-sea habitats, however both may be increasingly threatened by anthropogenic activity (e.g., mining activities at massive sulphide deposits). Climate change can alter the deep-sea through increased bottom temperatures, loss of oxygen, and modifications to deep water circulation. Despite the potential of these profound impacts, the mechanisms enabling these systems and their ecosystems to persist, function and respond to oceanic, crustal, and anthropogenic forces remain poorly understood. This is due primarily to technological challenges and difficulties in accessing, observing and monitoring the deep-sea. In this context, the development of deep-sea observatories in the 2000s focused on understanding the coupling between sub-surface flow and oceanic and crustal conditions, and how they influence biological processes. Deep-sea observatories provide long-term, multidisciplinary time-series data comprising repeated observations and sampling at temporal resolutions from seconds to decades, through a combination of cabled, wireless, remotely controlled, and autonomous measurement systems. The three existing vent observatories are located on the Juan de Fuca and Mid-Atlantic Ridges (Ocean Observing Initiative, Ocean Networks Canada and the European Multidisciplinary Seafloor and water column Observatory). These observatories promote stewardship by defining effective environmental monitoring including characterizing biological and environmental baseline states, discriminating changes from natural variations versus those from anthropogenic activities, and assessing degradation, resilience and recovery after disturbance. This highlights the potential of observatories as valuable tools for environmental impact assessment (EIA) in the context of climate change and other anthropogenic activities, primarily ocean mining. This paper provides a synthesis on scientific advancements enabled by the three observatories this last decade, and recommendations to support future studies through international collaboration and coordination. The proposed recommendations include: i) establishing common global scientific questions and identification of Essential Ocean Variables (EOVs) specific to MORs, ii) guidance towards the effective use of observatories to support and inform policies that can impact society, iii) strategies for observatory infrastructure development that will help standardize sensors, data formats and capabilities, and iv) future technology needs and common sampling approaches to answer today’s most urgent and timely questions.